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Anatomy test1 review

Anatomy Test 1 Study Guide

anatomy study of structure, shape of the body, body parts, their relation to one another
physiology study of how the body and its parts function
structure determines what function can occur
levels of organizaiton in the body simple-->complex atoms, cells, tissues, organ, organ systems, organism
Integumentary skin, hair, nails Function: protects, excrete, water proofs
Skeletal Cartilage, joints, bones Function: support, protection, forms blood cells
muscular muscles Function: movement
Nervous brain , spinal cord, nerves Function: control center(Brain)transmit messages to spinal cords and nerves.
Endocrine pituitary glands, thyroid gland, pancreas, ovaries Function: produce hormones which control body functions
circulatory 2 systems a. cardiovascular- heart, blood vessels Function: carries nutrients and wastes B. lymphatic- lymph vessals, lymph nodes Function: assist in imunnity
Respritory lungs, trachea, nose Function: supply Oxygen / Remove Co2
Digestive stomach, intestines, esophagus, Function: breaks down food, and gives the products to the blood
Urinary kidneys, bladder , ureter Function: removes nitrogen containing waste from blood
reproductive ovary, prostate gland, uterus Function: produce offspringcx
Functions Necessary for Life Functions Necessary For Life
Maintain boundries insides remain distinct from outside. Cell has cell membrane; body negramnetary system
movement muscular system
digestion breaks down food
metabolism all chemical reactions in body depends on digestive and hormones ; controlled by endocrine system
Excretion removes wastes
Reproduction a. cellular original cell--> 2 daughter cells B. Organism- task of sperm and egg
Growth increase in size; usually accompanied by increase in # of cells
What is the goal of all body systems? Maintain life
Nutrients Important for cell building and energy 5 vital nutrients a. carbohydrates-fuel/ energy b. proteins -cell building c. fats- cell building, cushions, reserve fuel d. minerals and vitamins - responisbe for chemical reaction that takes place in the body
Oxygen Must be present to produce Chemical energy that releases energy from food
Water 60-80% body weight, provides fluid base for body secretions and excretions
Body temperature 37* C/ 98.6*F as body temp drops metabolic reaction slows--> stop/temp. increase reaction speed up proteins broken down. Death at either extreme
Correct Atmospheric pressure Necessary for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. What happens at high altitudes- gas exchange
Define Homeostasis body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal condition even though outside environment is changing.
How does the body maintain a stable internal environment? Communication between 3 major components a. control center b. receptor c. Effector
Receptor (sensory) Responds to changes in environment (internal or external)
Control center (brain) determines appropriate level to maintain for each varible controlled
Effector (muscles) provides a mean of response to stimulus triggered by control center
Anatomical position body's standard position, body erect, feet parallel and the arms hanging a the side with palms facing forward
3 different planes a. medial b. frontal plane c. transverse plane
describe directional terms used by personnel and anatomist allow them to explain exact where one body structure is in relation to one another.
superior refers to the head or uper body regions
inferior the front of an organism organ, or part
posterior toward or at the backside of the body
Medial toward the midline of the body
lateral away from the midline of the body
intermidiate between a more medial an a more lateral structure
proximal toward the attached end of a limb or the origin of a sructure
distal farthest from the point of attachment of a limb or origin of structure ex. knee is distal to thigh
superficial located close to or on he body surface
deep away from the body surface; more internal
2 sets of internal body cavities Dorsal body Cavity- cranial cavity, spine cavity; Ventral body cavity- thoracic cavity, adomond cavity, pelvic cavity, Abdoninapelvic cavity
abdominal anterior bosy trunk inferior
antecubital anterior surface of elbow
axillary armpit
brachial arm
buccal cheek area
orbital eye area
patellar anterior knee
unbilical naval
cervical neck region
digital fingers, toes
femoral thigh
ingunial are where thigh meets body trunk
oral mouth
pubic genital region
thoracic chest
deltoid curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle
gluteal butlock
lumbar area of back between ribs/ hips
occipital osterior surface of head
popliteal posterior knee area
scapular shoulder blade region
sural the posterior surface of lower leg , the calf
unibical region
epigastric region superior to unibalic region
hypogastric inferior to uniballic region
rigth/ left iliac region lateral to the hypogastric region
right /left lumbar region lie later to the uniballic reason
right /left hypochondriac region flank the epigastric region and contain the lower ribs
Created by: Dirtbikes1234



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