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Anat/Phys Exam 1

anatomy the study of the structure of organisms and the relations of their parts
physiology a specialized field within biology which can be defined as the science dealing with the functions of living organisms or their parts
biology the science that deals with the phenomenon of life and living organisms
do anatomical structures vary between individuals yes due to anatomical variation
anatomical or reference position a reference position for descriptive purposes. The position is with the body standing erect, facing the observer, eyes front, arms at the side with palms of the hand and tips of the feet direct forward
saggital plane a vertical plane or cut dividing the body into right and left halves
frontal plane vertical plane that intersects the saggital plane and are parallel to the forehead
coronal plane the frontal plane that passes through the coronal suture of the skull
transverse plane a plane that divides the body into upper and lower parts at any level
ventral away from the backbone or toward the front of the body
dorsal toward the backbone, or away from the front of the body
anterior toward the front or away from the back (usually used with reference to the head)
posterior toward the back, or away from the front (usually used in reference to the head or the free extremities)
cranial towards the head (rostral used sometimes)
caudal toward the tail, away from the head
superior upper
inferior lower
superficial toward the surface
deep away from the surface
medial toward the axis or midline
lateral away from the axis or midline
central pertaining to or situated at the center
peripheral toward the outer surface or part
cell living tissue that contains a nucleus and a variety of cellular material specialized to the particular function of the individual cell. Highly masses of protoplasm which possess the property we have come to call "life,"differ based on tissue they comprise
tissue when colonies of cells and their intercellular substances combine in such a manner as to exhibit functional unity
5 types of elementary tissue epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous, vascular
epithelial tissue sheets of tissue that cover the external region of the body (on surface)- skin; lines the tubes leading into the interior of the body- ear canal; it lines internal cavities of the body- thoracic cavity (the lining)- the lungs and heart are inside
types of epithelial tissue epithelial tissue proper, endothelial tissue, mesothelial tissue
epithelial tissue proper forms outer layer of skin, internal membranes, continuous with the skin; found in respiratory and digestive tracts
endothelial tissue inner lining of walls of blood and lymph confined vessels
mesothelial tissue specialized tissues that lines the primary body cavity- thoracic cavity
connective tissue connects or binds structures to support the body and aiding in body maintenance
types of connective tissue loose, dense, specialized
loose connective tissue characterized by scattered fibers
types of loose connective tissue areolar and adipose
areolar loose connective tissue commonly found just beneath the skin. Forms the "bed" for skin and mucous membranes
adipose loose connective tissue a form of areolar tissue that is composed of cells which have absorbed and are imgregnated with fat
dense connective tissue characterized by closely packed fibers. Tendons, ligaments, fasciae, and reticular (netlike)
specialized connective tissue solid or rigid intercellular substances. Various types of cartilage and bone
muscular tissue principle mediator of all movement; responsible for voluntary and involuntary movement; counts for 40% of body weight
nervous tissue the motor unit consists of a nerve cell (the body and its processes) and all the muscle fibers served by the nerve cell. Highly specialized: main property is extremely irritable/sensitive- abrupt environmental change which cause electrical chemical change
vascular tissue fluid tissue of the body (10% of body weight)
types of cartilage hyaline, elastic, fibrous
hyaline cartilage covers the articular surfaces of joints and forms the framework for the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Bluish/white when it's young/translucent
elastic cartilage occurs in the external auditory meatus, the epiglottis, and in some small laryngeal cartilages/yellow, flexible, has to fo with the production and reception of sound
fibrous cartilage is found in some joints in the body and in some ligaments, particularly the spinal column
roles of tendons or ligaments attach muscles, bone, or cartilage
3 body cavities pleural, peritoneal, pericardial
pleural cavity chest cavity
peritoneal cavity stomach cavity
pericardial cavity heart cavity
bone considered a dense connective tissue, characterized by a rigid matrix or intercellular substance. Bones of composed of 2 different types of cells: Osteoblasts and osteocytes
2 kinds of bones dense(compact) and spongy(cancellous)
dense(compact) bone white in color
spongy(cancellous) bone more poreous (small holes in them)
2 types of bone marrow yellow and red
yellow bone marrow adipose(fat tissue)
red bone marrow manufacture of red blood cells
axial skeleton spine is the axis of the body, and the axial skeleton includes those bones associated with the spinal column, its extension and processes (vertebrae, hyoid bone, rib cage)
appendicular skeleton refers to the bones of the appendages. Consists of the pectoral girdle (upper limbs) and pelvic girdle (lower limbs)
condyle a rounded or knuckle-like process
process a bony prominence
spine a sharp projection
tubercle a small rounded projection
tuberosity a large rounded projection
fissure a cleft or deep groove
foramen an opening or perforation in a bone(or cartilage)
meatus a tube or passageway
sinus a cavity within the bone
3 types of joints synarthrodial, amphiathroidial, diarthrodial
synarthroidial joint immovable joints
amphiathroidial joint slightly movable joint
diarthroidial freely movable joint
3 types of muscle striated, smooth, and cardiac
striated muscle crossed by evenly spaced transverse bands- look striated: voluntary muscle- attach primarily to skeletal system- bones called skeletal muscles
smooth muscle visceral; smooth(visceral) muscle consists of fusiform cells, which contain a single nucleus within the central portion of the sarcoplasm; because of its location, some refer to it as a visceral muscle
cardiac muscle muscle tissue in the heart; found only in the heart and has properties of both smooth and striated muscle
muscle type independent of voluntary control smooth muscle
role of endomysium with the organization of striated muscle serves to bind the muscle fibers and to separate them from adjacent muscle fibers. Tendons at the end of striated muscle fibers attach to either bone or cartilage
difference between isometric and isotonic Isometric contraction is a contraction in which the muscle does not shorten during contracton. Isotonic contraction occurs when a muscle shortens, but the tension of the muscle remains constant
type of movements muscle contraction leads to flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation
respiration the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction
number of vertebrae, categories of vertebrae 34 individual vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 3-5 coccygeal
atlas first cervical vertebrae
axis second cervical vertebrae
cervical vertebrae foramen in their transverse process
thoracic vertebrae extra articulating facets
lumbar size
sacral fused with foramen
coccygeal fused without foramen
vertebra's function form the vertebral column to support the body of an animal and to provide the opening
corpus function body, largest part of a vertebra, cylindrical-like, supports
pedicle function vertebral arch, segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body, protection
vertebral foramen function opening in the middle of the vertebrae, spinal cord runs through
neural arch function the posterior part of a vertebral arch and this consists of two pedicles, two laminae and seven processes, protection
spinous process backward and downward from the junction of the laminae, movement
ribs long curved bones which form the cage
number of ribs 12 pairs, 24 individual ribs
categories of ribs true, false, floating
true ribs first 7 pairs of ribs join directly with the sternum to form the costosternal joint
false ribs rib pairs 8, 9, and 10 connect indirectly to the sternum by means of long costal cartilage
floating ribs pairs 11 and 12 have vertebral attachments; but, their anterior extremities are free
ribs attach anteriorly 1-7 attach directly to sternum, 8-10 attach sternum indirectly with long costal cartilage, 11 and 12 don't attach
ribs attach posteriorly all attach to the respective thoracic vertebrae
costochondral joints joints between the ribs and costal cartilage in the front of the rib cage. They are hyaline cartilaginous joints
costovertebral joints articulations that connect the heads of the ribs with the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. Joining of ribs to the vertebrae occurs at two places, the head and the tubercle of the rib. Two convex facets from the head attach to two adjacent vertebrae
costotransverse ligament a short fibrous band that connects the dorsal surface of the neck of a rib with the anterior surface of the transverse process of the corresponding vertebra
sternum breastbone, long flat bony plate shaped like a capital "T" located anteriorly to the heart in the center of the thorax, an elongated, flattened bone, forming the middle portion of the anterior wall of the thorax
manubrium broad upper part of the sternum, quadrangular shape, narrowing from the top
clavicle long, curved, horizontal bone just above the first rib, forming the front portion of the shoulder
sternal angle anterior angle formed by the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum
corpus body of the sternum
ensiform process and xiphoid process small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower part of the sternum which is usually ossified in the adult human
muscles of inspiration diaphragm,(external/internal)intercostal,levator costarum(longis/brevis),serratus posterior superior,sternocleidomastoid,scalenus(ant/med/post),pectoralis(major/minor),subclavius,serratus anterior,latissimus dorsi,lateral iliocostalis(cervicis/thoracis)
diaphragm origin xiphoid process of the sternum, inferior margin of the rib cage (ribs 7-12), corpus of L1, and transverse processes of L1-L5
diaphragm function depression of central tendon causing the thoracic cavity to expand (floor drops out)
external intercostal origin inferior surface of ribs 1-11
external intercostal function when contracting it raises the rib cage to give the thoracic cavity more space
internal intercostal, intercartilaginous origin inferior surface of ribs 1-11 at the anterior cartilaginous portion of the ribs (lies under external intercostals)
internal intercostal, intercartilaginous function intercartilaginous fall where the cartilages lay elevation of the ribs
levator costarum, longis origin transverse processes of T7-T11
levator costarum, longis function on the back side also helps elevate the ribs
levator costarum, brevis origin origin-transverse processes of T7-T11
levator costarum, brevis function helps elevate ribs
serratus posterior, superior origin spinous processes of C7 and T1-T3
serratus posterior, superior function elevates rib cage which expands thoracic cavity
sternocleidomastoid origin mastoid process of the temporal bone
sternocleidomastoid function elevates sternum and rib cage
scalenus anterior origin transverse processes of vertebrae C3-C6
scalenus anterior function elevates first rib
scalenus medius origin transverse processes of vertebrae C2-C7
scalenus medius function elevates first rib
scalenus posterior origin transverse processes of C5-C7
scalenus posterior function elevates second rib
pectoralis major origin sternal head; length of the sternum at the costal cartilages; clavicular head; and, the anterior clavicle
pectoralis major function increase transverse dimension of rib cage side to side, elevates sternum
pectoralis minor origin anterior surface of ribs 2 -5 near the chondral margin
pectoralis minor function boundary of thoracic cavity, increases transverse dimension of the rib cage
subclavious origin inferior surface of the clavicle
subclavious function elevation of first rib
serratus anterior origin inferior surface of the clavicle
serratus anterior function elevation of the upper ribs
latissimus dorsi origin lower six thoracic, along with the lumbar and sacral vertebrae and back surface of ribs 8-12
latissimus dorsi function with the humerus fixed: elevates the lower ribs, help move humerus
lateral iliocostalis cervicis origin outer surface of ribs 3-6
lateral iliocostalis cervicis function elevates ribs 3-6
lateral iliocostalis thoracis origin uppers edges of ribs 7-12
lateral iliocostalis thoracis function when contracts stabilizes large portion/segment of back rib cage wall, allows it to move along with rib cage elevation
muscles of expiration internal intercostal,transverse thoracis,subcostal,serratus posterior inferior,transverse abdominis, (internal/external)oblique abdominis,rectus abdominis,quadratus lumborum,latissimus dorsi,lateral iliocostalis(lumborum/thoracis)
internal intercostal, interosseous portion origin inferior margin of ribs 1-11 (not on anterior cartilaginous portion of ribs but bone portion (i.e., interosseous)
internal intercostal, interosseous portion function depresses ribs 1-11
transverse thoracis origin posterior surface of the sternum along the body and xyphoid process
transverse thoracis function depresses rib cage
subcostal origin from inner surface of the rib near the angle
subcostal function depresses rib cage
serratus posterior inferior origin spinous processes of T11, T12, and L1-L3
serratus posterior inferior function depresses rib cage, supports expiratory effort
transverse abdominis origin posterior abdominal wall the vertebral column via the thoracolumbar fascia of the abdominal aponeurosis
transverse abdominis function compresses abdominal contents
internal oblique abdominis origin inguinal ligament and iliac crest
internal oblique abdominis function rotates and flexes the trunk, compresses the abdomen
external oblique abdominis origin osseous portion of the lower seven ribs
external oblique abdominis function bilateral contraction flexes the vertebral column, compresses the abdomen
rectus abdominis origin originates as four (4) or five (5) segments at the pubis inferiorly
rectus abdominis function flexion of the vertebral column
quadratus lumborum origin iliac crest
quadratus lumborum function bilateral contraction fixes abdominal wall supporting abdominal compression
latissimus dorsi expiration origin lumbar, sacral, and lower thoracic vertebrae
latissimus dorsi expiration function humerus fixed: stabilizes the posterior abdominal wall for expiration
lateral iliocostalis lumborum origin lumbodorsal fascia, lumbar vertebrae, and back surface of the coxal bone
lateral iliocostalis lumborum function depresses the lower 6 ribs
lateral iliocostalis thoracis expiration origin upper edges of ribs 7-12
lateral iliocostalis thoracis expiration function contracted stabilizes large segments of the back of the rib cage, rib depression
four structures of chest wall rib cage wall, diaphragm, abdominal wall, abdominal content
rib cage wall part of chest wall rib cage surrounds the lungs in the shape of a barrel. Consists of thoracic vertebrae, associated ribs, costal cartilage and the attachment to the sternum and the pectoral girdle
diaphragm part of chest wall separates the thorax (cavity housing the lungs) from the abdominal contents. It is dome shaped and the right side is lower than the left. The center of the diaphragm contains the inelastic central tendon
abdominal wall part of chest wall provides the casing for the lower half of the torso. It is enclosed by two sheets of connective tissue (i.e. abdominal aponeurosis and the lumbodorsal fascia)
abdominal content part of chest wall stomach, organs and other international structures are found within the abdominal cavity. The content are relatively homogenous and are suspended from above by a suction force at the interior surface of the diaphragm
operation of chest wall unit linkage between the chest wall (rib cage, abdominal wall, diaphragm, and abdominal content) and the lungs via the pleura leads to the two components acting as one unit. As the chest wall expands during inspiration, the lungs expand in size
movement of air in and out of lungs During inhalation, the thoracic cavity increases in size causing the density or pressure of the air in the lungs (alveolar pressure) to be reduced
passive forces of respiration generate alveolar pressure needed for speech
active forces of respiration contractions occurs when the speakers target volume has the potential to be reduced as the contributions of the passive forces decrease
part of the brain responsible for tidal breathing the most common form of breathing, is sometimes called automatic breathing, metabolic breathing, or involuntary breathing. The control of tidal breathing is vested in the brainstem
planes of reference sagittal, frontal, coronal, transverse
flexion term used to describe the bending of a part, or to describe the condition of being bent
extension straightening, in the anatomical position, most of the structures, except the feet, are extended
abduction movement away from the body
adduction movement towards the median plane or axis
medial rotation to rotate a member toward the midplane of the body, standing pigeon toed is an example
lateral rotation to rotate away from the midplane
vertebrae landmarks corpus, pedicle, vertebral foramen, neural arch, spinous process, transverse process
transverse process directly to the sides of the junction of the laminae, movement
pectoral girdle clavicle and scapula
scapula one of the pair of large, flat, three sided bones that the back of the shoulder
pelvic girdle supporting structure to which the lower limbs are attached, acetabulum and coxal bone
diaphragm insertion fibers course up and medially to the central tendon of the diaphragm
external intercostal insertion course down to the upper surface of the rib directly below
internal intercostal, intercartilaginous insertion course down to the upper surface of the rib rib directly below
levator costarum, longis insertion course down and obliquely out, bypass the rib below the point of origin rather inserting into the next rib
levator costarum, brevis insertion course obliquely down and out to insert at the tubercle of the rib below
serratus posterior superior insertion course down and laterally to insert just beyond the angles of ribs 2-5
sternocleidomastoid insertion course down and in to insert into the superior portion of the manubrium and the clavicle
scalenus anterior insertion course down to insert into the superior surface of rib 1
scalenus medius insertion course down to the superior surface of the first rib
scalenus posterior insertion course down to insert at the second rib
pectoralis major insertion courses fan like laterally, converging at the humerus, with insertion at the greater tubercle of the humerus
pectoralis minor insertion courses up and laterally to insert into the coracoid process of the scapula
subclavius insertion courses obliquely and medially to insert at the superior surface of rib 1 at the chondral margin
serratus anterior insertion courses obliquely and medially to insert at the superior surface of rib 1 at the chondral margin
latissimus dorsi insertion courses upward across the back of the lower torso at different angles to insert into the humerus
lateral iliocostalis, cervis insertion courses upward and toward the midline to insert into the 4-6 cervical vertebrae
lateral iliocostalis, thoracis insertion courses upward and toward the midline to insert into the lower edges of ribs 1-6
internal intercostal, interosseous insertion course down and laterally to insert at superior surface of the rib below (fills the space between the ribs)
transversus thoracis insertion course up and laterally to insert at the inner chondral surface of ribs 2-6
subcostal insertion course down and laterally to insert on the inner surface of the second or third rib below
serratus posterior inferior insertion course up and laterally to insert at the lower margin of ribs 7-12
transversus abdominis insertion course laterally to insert at the transverse abdominis aponeurosis and inner surface of ribs 6-12
internal oblique abdominis insertion courses fan like medially to insert on the cartilaginous portion of the lower ribs and the portion of the abdominal aponeurosis lateral to the rectus abdominis
external oblique abdominis insertion course fan like downward to insert at the iliac crest
rectus abdominis insertion courses up to the xiphoid process of the sternum and the cartilage of ribs 5-7
quadratus lumborum insertion courses fan like up and medially to insert at the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae and the inferior border of rib 12
latissimus dorsi expiration insertion courses up fan like to insert into the humerus
lateral iliocostalis thoracis expiration insertion courses upward and toward the midline to insert into the lower edges of ribs 1-6
lateral iliocostalis lumborum insertion courses upward and medially to insert into the lower edges of ribs 7-12
Created by: wilder10