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At the Homefront

Germany after WW1

Absence of men large burden on women and children at the home front
By 1917 most German farms were run by women
Jobs more became available as war industries expanded and wages rose but was cancelled out by rapidl increasing prices
British Naval Blockade shortage of labour = supplies disrupted
Kiel Mutiny Late 1918, German sailors mutinied and the kaiser’s government collapsed. Oct. 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm II named Prince Max von Baden as chancellor. He contacted Woodrow Wilson to impose the 14 points but Br. and Fr. intervened. It was a fail
Stab-in-the-back Theory widely believed in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose WWI but betrayed by the civilians on the home front (the unpatriotic populace, theSocialists, Bolsheviks, the Weimar Republic, and especially the Jews)
November Criminals the unpatriotic populace, theSocialists, Bolsheviks, the Weimar Republic, and especially the Jews.
Rations introduced in 1915, repeatedly cut as resources dwindled
Potato harvest fail in 1916, forced citizens to make do with turnips (The Turnip Winter), surviving on turnips and bread, flour for bread was mixed with sawdust
National Income was about 1/3 from 1913
Meat consumption down by 12%
War Pensions Germany spending 1/3 of its budget on that
Industrial Production down by 1/3 from 1915
Rich and poor huge gaps between living conditions
German Workers Bitter about restrictions in wages whilst their employers earn fortunes
Revolution Oct-Nov 1918
Women working in factories, seen as damaging to family values and society
New Democratic Leader hated by ex-soldiers and civilians and come to believe that Field Marshall Hindenburg was betrayed by weak politicians
Field Marshall Hindenburg Field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg was Germany's most famous army commander in World War One. Hindenburg formed a formidable military partnership with Erich Luderndorff.
Period of crisis 1918-23
Putsches revolts
Economy weakened by war effort, further damaged by demands for reparations and by terrible inflation
Price of bread in German Marks 1918:0.54, 1921:3.90, 1922:163.50, 1923=Jan: 250.00, Jun: 3465.00, Sep: 1,512,000.00, Nov: 201,000,000,000.00
Economic Problems 1921:gov prints more money to pay reparations, 1923: prints more money to pay workers
Period of Recovery 1924-1929
Dawes Plan 1924, 40 million pounds of loan from US, new currency to replace the one devalued by inflation, used by government to cover housing, and unemployment figures fell
Young Plan 1929 Reduce amount of reparations by 75% gave her 59 years to pay, never worked because of Wall Street Crash
Locarno Treaty 1925
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928, First only France and U.S.A, Agree not to go to war for 5 years, Settle disputes by peaceful means, Included: USA , Germany , USSR , Italy and Japan.
Rhineland Britain and France withdrew their troops 5 years ahead of schedule
Monthly wage or a railway guard 1914:157 marks, 1918: 342 marks
Price of a kilo of butter 1914:2.6 marks, 1918: 30 marks
April 1917 300,000 Berlin workers went on strike, due to bread ration and wages
Created by: azra3.142