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Chapter 3

Skeletal System

Acetabulum The cup-shaped socket of the hip joint. The acetabulum is a feature of the pelvis
Allogenic Denoting an individual or cell type that is from the same species but genetically distinct
Ankylosing Spondylitis Refers to inflammation of the joints in the spine
Arthrodesis The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells
Arthrolysis The surgical restoration of mobility in ankylosed joints.
Arthroscopy The examination of a joint, specifically, the inside structures
Autologous Pertaining to a tissue or structure occurring naturally and derived from the same individual
Chondroma A cartilaginous growth or tumor.
Chrondromalacia Abnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage of the joints, especially of the knee.
Comminuted Fracture A fracture in which the bone is splintered or fragmented
Compression Fracture A fracture in which the bone collapses
Costochondritis Inflammation at the junction of a rib and its cartilage
Craniostenosis Is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone
Crepitation Is a medical term to describe the grating, crackling or popping sounds and sensations experienced under the skin and joints or a crackling sensation due to the presence of air in the subcutaneous tissue
Dual X-Ray Absorpitometry Use of low-dose x-radiation of two different energies to measure bone mineral content and fat:lean ratios at different anatomic sites
Fibrous Dysplasia An abnormal condition characterized by the fibrous displacement of the osseous tissue within the bones affected
Hallux Valgus Deviation of the tip or main axis of the big toe toward the outer side of the foot
Hemarthrosis Extravasation of blood into a joint or its synovial cavity
Hemopoietic Related to the process of formation and development of the various types of blood cells
Internal Fixation The stabilization of fractured bony parts by direct fixation to one another with surgical wires, screws, pins, or plates
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Chronic inflammatory arthritis that begins in childhood, characterized by swelling, tenderness, and pain in one or more joints and by lymph node and splenic enlargement
Kyphosis The extreme curvature of the upper back also known as a hunchback
Laminectomy Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
Lordosis The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side
Lumbago A painful condition of the lower back, as one resulting from muscle strain or a slipped disk
Malleolus A rounded bony prominence, such as those on either side of the ankle joint
Manubrium The upper segment of the sternum with which the clavicle and the first two pairs of ribs articulate
Metacarpals Any of the five long bones that form the metacarpus and articulate with the bones of the distal row of the carpus and with the five proximal phalanges
Metatarsals Any of the five long bones that form the anterior portion of the foot and articulate posteriorly with the three cuneiform and the cuboid bones and anteriorly with the five proximal phalanges
Open Fracture One in which a wound through the adjacent or overlying soft tissues communicates with the site of the break
Orthopedic Surgeon Orthopedic surgery is surgery performed by a medical specialist, such as an orthopedist or orthopedic surgeon, trained to deal with problems that develop in the bones, joints, and ligaments of the human body
Orthotic An orthopedic appliance designed to straighten or support a body part
Osteitis Inflammation of bone
Osteoarthritis A progressive disorder of the joints caused by gradual loss of cartilage and resulting in the development of bony spurs and cysts at the margins of the joints.
Osteochondroma A benign bone tumor consisting of projecting adult bone capped by cartilage projecting from the lateral contours of endochondral bones
Osteoclasis Surgical fracture or refracture of bones
Osteomalacia Osteomalacia is a bone disease that occurs in adults and is caused by a prolonged period of vitamin D deficiency
Osteomyelitis Refers to a bone infection, almost always caused by a bacteria
Osteonecrosis The destruction and death of bone tissue, such as from ischemia, infection, malignant neoplastic disease, or trauma
Osteopenia A condition of bone in which there is a generalized reduction in bone mass that is less severe than that in osteoporosis, caused by the resorption of bone at a rate that exceeds bone synthesis
Osteoporosis Occurs when bones lose an excessive amount of their protein and mineral content, particularly calcium
Osteoporotic Hip Fracture Vernacular term for fracture of the femoral neck, typically resulting from a fall in an old person with osteoporosis
Osteorrhaphy Fixation of fragments of bone with sutures or wires
Paget's Disease Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any body part, organ, or system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs and whose etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown
Pathological Fracture One due to weakening of the bone structure by pathologic processes, such as neoplasia, osteomalacia, or osteomyelitis
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Medical spinal procedures in which bone cement is injected through a small hole in the skin into a fractured vertebra with the goal of relieving back pain caused by vertebral compression fractures
Periostitis Inflammation of the periosteum
Podiatrist A physician who specializes in the medical care and treatment of the human foot
Prothesis The replacement of an absent part by an artificial substitute
Rheumatoid Arthritis A chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints
Rickets A childhood condition caused by serious vitamin D deficiency
Scoliosis Is a side-to-side curvature of the spine.
Spina Bifida A serious birth abnormality in which the spinal cord is malformed and lacks its usual protective skeletal and soft tissue coverings
Spiral Fracture One in which the bone has been twisted apart
Spondylolisthesis Forward displacement of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae over the vertebra below it or over the sacrum
Spondylosis Ankylosis of a vertebral joint
Subluxation Incomplete or partial dislocation
Synovectomy Excision of part or all of the synovial membrane of a joint
Vertebrae Bones in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions of the body that make up the vertebral column
-ankyl/o Meaning crooked, bent or stiff
-arthr/o Meaning joint
-chondr/o Meaning cartilage
-cost/o Meaning rib
-crani/o Meaning Skull
-desis Meaning surgical fixation of bone or joint
-kypho/o Meaning hump
-lord/o Meaning bent backward
-lysis Meaning loosening or setting free
-myel/o Meaning bone marrow
-oss/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o Meaning bone
-scoli/o Meaning curved
-spondyl/o Meaning vertebrae
-synovi/o, synov/o Meaning synovial membrane
-um Noun ending
Created by: SavannahNethken