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Musculoskeletal Review

What are the five regions of the vertebrae column? cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
What are the four different types of bones? short, long, irregular, flat
What are the functions of the bones? framework of the body, protect internal organs, store calcium and other minerals, produce blood cells (hematopoiesis), provide points of attachement for muscles, tendons and ligaments making movement possible.
What are the functions of the muscles? provide movement of an organ or body part, contribute to posture, produce body heat, protect internal organs
What are the three different types of muscles? skeletal, cardiac, smooth
What are the three different types of ribs? true, false and floating
What are the three divisions of the pelvis? ilium, ischium, pubis
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of? bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton
What are the three regions of the axial skeleton? skull, rib cage, vertebral column
What does the pectoral girdle consist of? clavicle and scapula
What is a fontanel? incomplete bone formation (soft spot)that lies between the cranial bones of an infant's skull
What is an orthopedist? a physician who specializes in the diagnoses and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
What is muscular dystrophy? a genetic disease, characterized by gradual atrophy and weakening of muscle tissue
What is myasthenia gravis? a neuromuscular disorder, causes fluctuating weakness of certain skeletal muscle groups (eyes, face and sometimes limbs)
What is rheumatoid arthritis? a systemic disease, characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and their related structures, resulting in crippling deformaties
periosteum A dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bone.
tendon A strap composed of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.
lordosis Abnormal inward curvature of the spine.
scoliosis Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
kyphosis An exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic vertebraw.
appendage Any body part attached to a main structure.
talipes (equinovarus) Any deformity of the foot; also called club foot.
ligament Band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone.
osteoporosis Bone pores or cavities resulting from a decrease in bone density.
sternum Breast bone.
flexion Decreases the angle of a joint.
crepitation Dry grating sound caused by bones rubbing together.
dorsiflexion Elevates the foot.
laminectomy Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra.
podiatry Foot treatment.
diarthrosis Freely movable joints.
exacerbation Increase in severity of a disease.
extension Increases the angle of a joint.
claudication Lameness, limping.
cruciate ligaments Ligaments that form an X.
hypotonia Loss of muscular tone.
plantar flexion Lowers the foot.
bone mineral density test Measures bone density.
abduction Moves away from the midline.
adduction Moves closer to the midline.
inversion Moves the sole of the foot inward.
eversion Moves the sole of the foot outward.
strain Muscular trauma caused by violent contraction or an excessive forcible stretch.
subluxation Partial or incomplete dislocation.
reduction Procedure that restores bone to its normal position.
hematopoiesis Production and development of blood cells.
arthrocentesis Puncture of a joint space.
myelography Radiography of the spinal cord.
open reduction Reduction procedure that treats bone fractures using surgery.
closed reduction Reduction procedure that uses manipulation.
muscular tissue Refers to all contractile tissue of the body.
amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joints.
torticollis Stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the neck muscle.
ankylosis Stiffening and immobility of a joint.
sprain Tearing of ligament tissue.
ilium The lateral flaring portion of the hip bone.
ischium The lower part of the hip bone.
agonist The muscle that produces the movement.
antagonist The muscle that relaxes in order to allow a movement.
joint / articulation The place at which two bones meet.
pubis The third portion of the hip bone.
calcium supplements Treat and prevent hypocalcemia.
pronation Turns the palm down.
supination Turns the palm up.
ACL anterior cruciate ligament
CDH congenital dislocation of the hip
CT computed tomography
DJD degenerative joint disease
EMG electromyography
Fx fracture
IM intramuscular
IV intervenous
MS multiple sclerosis
NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
THA total hip arthroplasty
THR total hip replacement
Created by: Barbara Ross