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Musculoskeletal Words and Definitions

agonist the muscle(s) that produces movement
amphiarthrosis slightly moveable joints
antagonist the muscle(s) that relaxes in order to allow a movement
appendicular skeleton consists of bone of the shoulders, hips, upper and lower extremities
arthritis inflammation of the joints
arthrodesis fusion/stabilization or binding of a joint
atlas the first cervical vertebra which supports the skull
axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, thorax and vertebral column
axis the second cervical vertebra which provides rotation of the skull
bones principal organs of support and protection in the body
bone marrow found within larger bones; responsible for production of blood cells
cervical vertebra the seven vertebrae which form the skeletal framework of the neck
coccyx tail of the vertebral column consisting of four or five fused vertebrae (tail bone)
compact bone hard, outer layer of bone
condyle rounded, articulating knob
crest a type of bone process that has a large ridge shape
diaphysis the shaft or long main portion of the bone
diarthrosis freely moveable joints
epiphysis the end or extremity of the bone
fascicle a bundle of muscle fibres
femorotibial pertaining to the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (lower leg bone)
fissure narrow, slit-like opening
flat bones provide a broad surface for muscular attachment and protection for internal organs (pelvic bone)
foramen rounded opening through a bone to accommodate blood vessels and nerves
fracture breakage of a bone due to trauma or disease
gluteus maximus large muscle of the buttocks
head prominent rounded articulating end of a bone
ilium the lateral flaring portion of the hip bone; upper of the three parts of the hip bone
intervertebral disks rounded structure with a gelatinous mass in the centre that separates the vertebrae
involuntary that which occurs with no discretionary control usually a visceral muscle (heart action or peristalsis)
irregular bones all other bones that cannot be grouped together under other headings
ischium the lower part of the hip bone
kyphosis an exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic vertebrae(hunch back or humpback)
latissimus dorsi the large muscle of the back
ligament band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone
long bones found in extremities of the body (arms, legs, and fingers)
lordosis abnormal inward curvature of the spine (seen in pregnancy or obesity)
lumbar vertebrae the five vertebrae situated in the lower back which carry most of the weight of the torso
meatus opening of passage into a bone
metacarpectomy excision of the bones in the hand
muscles structures that contract providing movement of the bone
muscular tissue refers to all of the contractile tissue of the body; two main types are voluntary and involuntary
musculoskeletal system consists of bones, joints and muscles, which provide the body with support, protection and the ability to move
myelocele hernia of the spinal cord
osteoclasis to break a bone for therapeutic reasons.(Surgical fracture for resetting)
osteblast a cell in the bone marrow that produces bone
osteclast a cell in the bone marrow that reabsorbs bone
osteoma bone tumor
osteoporosis bone pores or cavities resulting from disease in bone density
paraplegia paralysis of the lower spine and the lower portion of the trunk and both legs
patellapexy surgical fixation of the kneecap
pelvimetry measurement of the pelvis
pelvis basin shaped structure that support the sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder and other soft organs of the abdominopelvic cavity
periosteum a dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of the bone and contains blood and lymph vessels and nerves
phalangeal pertaining to the bones of the fingers and toes
podiatry foot treatment
pubis the third portion of the hipbone that is situated in front of the bladder
quadriplegia paralysis of the upper spine and all four extremities
ribs series of twelve pair of curved bones attached to the vertebral column which provides protection for internal organs
sacrum the five sacral vertebrae which are fused into a single bone
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
short bones bones that are as wide as they are long (ankles, wrists)
sinus cavity or hollow space in a bone
spina bifida a genetic disorder that results in malformation of the spin due to imperfect joining of the vertebrae
stemocleidomatoid a muscle of the chest arising from the sternum and inner part of the clavicle
sternum breast bone/chest plate
substernal pertaining to under the sternum
synarthrosis immovable joints
syndactylism condition of fingers and toes joined together. (webbed)
tendon a strap composed of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
thoracic vertebrae twelve vertebrae which support the chest and serve as a point of articulation for the ribs
torticollis stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the neck muscle
trochanter very large, irregularly shaped process found only on the femur
tubercle small rounded process
tuberosity large rounded process
vertebrae twenty six bones which make up the adult vertebral column
voluntary that which is done with control. Usually a striated muscle such as the biceps (walking and blinking)
Created by: amatt