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Chapter 12

European Society in the Age of the Renaissance

Lorenzo de' Medici (The Magnificent) Head ruler of the Medici family who ruled Florence from 1469- 1492. Also a very important Renaissance patron.
William Shakespeare An English playwright and poet of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, generally considered the greatest writer in English.
Brunelleschi, II Duomo Famous example of Renaissance architecture that reflects influence of classical styles
Medici Family Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
Cosimo de' Medici Florentine financier and statesman and friend of the papal court (1389-1464)
Cesare Borgia Took control of Italy along with his father Alexander VI
Charles V Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Humanism A program of study designed by Italians that emphasized the critical study of Latin and Greek literature with goal of understanding human nature
Civic humanism The duty of the good citizen in a republic.
Christian humanism Northern humanists who interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity and humanism in terms of their own religious traditions.
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly The writer makes fun of political, social, and religious institutions. He expresses his ideas about Bible translation.
Thomas More, Utopia An English humanist who describes a perfectly functioning society with equal opportunity for all and educated people.
Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus An Italian painter of the early Renaissance who did not become known until after his death. One of his best known works is the Birth of Venus.
"High Renaissance" The period from about 1450-1550 in which an interest in classical art began and when Renaissance art reached it's peak of artistic genius.
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa A "genius" of the Renaissance known not only as a skilled artist but also inventor, architect, botanist, etc. His most famous portrait is the Mona Lisa.
Raphael, School of Athens Italian painter who despite his short life left behind a number of great works and became the most sought-after artist in Europe. His most famous work is the School of Athens in the Vatican.
Petrarch Italian poet, scholar, and humanist who is famous for Canzoniere, a collection of love lyrics .
Peter Brueghel, the Elder Flemish painter who focused of the lives of ordinary people (peasants); Not very influenced by Italian Renaissance;
Girolamo Savonarola Dominician friar from 1452 to 1498 that preached in Florence. Eventually became the ruler of Florence but ended up being burned at the stake
Machiavelli, The Prince Famous political writer and his work. He argues that a ruler should seek to balance cruelty and kindness but should be cruel if necessary
Michelangelo A Florentine artist who worked on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
The David The most famous of Michelangelos's works which clearly reflects classical influence
Mannerism A style against the renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity, and realistic use of colors
El Greco A Greek artist who did the greatest work in Spain; greatest of the mannerists; Burial of Count Orgaz
Northern Renaissance In the late 15th and 16th centuries; time when Christian Humanism was introduced; and famous Humanist like Erasmus, Thomas More, and Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
Johann Gutenberg Made the first printing press
Perspective Parallel lines converging to a single point: this point is called the vanishing point.
City-States A state that has its own government and consists of a city and the area around it
sfumato softening of edges used in Renaissance paintings
Created by: birmingham