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Chapter 1

Biol 2113 Giesecke

Anatomy study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another. Concrete; can be seen, felt, and examined closely.
Physiology study of the function of the body; how body parts work to carry out activities.
Reference Man healthy young (22-year-old) male weighing 155 lb
Reference Woman healthy young (22-year-old) woman weighing 125 lb
Subdivisions of Anatomy gross, microscopic, developmental
Gross Anatomy study of large body structures visible to naked eye. Example: heart, lungs, and kidneys; also called macroscopic
Three approaches of Gross Anatomy Regional anatomy, systemic anatomy, surface anatomy
Regional Anatomy Study of structure by region. All structures (muscle, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a particular region of the body are examined at same time; approach of gross anatomy
Systemic Anatomy study of structure by system. Example: cardiovascular system study would include examination of heart and the blood vessels of entire body; approach of gross anatomy
Surface Anatomy study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface, example locate appropriate blood vessel in which to feel pulses or draw blood; approach of gross anatomy
Microscopic Anatomy study of structures too small to be seen with naked eye; uses exceedingly thin slices of body tissue which are stained and mounted for viewing under microscope.
Cytology study of cells
Histology study of tissues
Developmental Anatomy studies changes that occur in the body throughout life span.
Embryology study of developmental changes that occur before birth
Renal Physiology study of kidney function
Neurophysiology study of nervous system function
Cardiovascular Physiology study of heart and blood vessels function
Complementarity of Structure and Function function always reflects structure; physiology is only explainable in terms of the underlying anatomy.
Unit of Life Cell
Correct Ordering of Structural Hierarchy chemical; cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
Chemical Level atoms combine to form molecules; molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles
Cellular Level smallest units of living things; have common functions but individuals vary widely in size and shape reflecting their unique functions in the body.
Tissue groups of similar cells that have a common function
Basic Tissue Types epithelium, muscle, connective, nervous
Epithelium Tissue tissue that covers the body surface and lines its cavities
Muscle Tissue tissue that provides movement
Connective Tissue tissue that supports and protects body organs
Nervous Tissue tissue that provides means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses
Organ Level discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is common) that performs a specific function for the body.
Organ System organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose. Example: heart + blood vessels = cardiovascular system
Organismal Level highest level of organization is the organism (human being). Sum total of all structural levels.
Necessary Life Functions maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
Maintain Boundaries internal environment remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it
Movement from one place to another
Responsiveness ability to sense changes in environment and then respond to them.
The System Most Involved with Responsiveness nervous system, because nerve cells are hightly excitable and communicate with each other via electrical impulses
Digestion breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
Metabolism all chemical reactions that occur within body cells
Catabolism breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks
Anabolism synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
Cellular Respiration using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP
Three Systems Metabolism Depends On digestive and respiratory systems to make nutrients and oxygen available to the blood; cardiovascular system to distribute them throughout body
Regulates Metabolism mostly by hormones secreted by endocrine system glands
Excretion process of removing wates from the body
Three Systems Involved in Excretion digestive system rids body of solid wastes, feces; urinary system rids body of nitrogen-containing metabolic wastes, urea in urine; respiratory system rids body of carbon dioxide, a by-product of cellular respiration
Cellular Reproduction original cell divides, producing two identical daughter cells that my then be used for body growth or repair.
Organismal Reproduction major task of the reproductive system which is directly responsible for producing offspring, a function exquisitely regulated by hormones of the endocrine system.
Growth increase in size of a body part or the organism as a whole. Usually accomplished by increasing the number of cells. Constructive activities occur at a faster rate than destructive ones.
Integumentary System function forms external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
Integumentary System anatomy hair, skin, nails
Skeletal System function protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.
Skeletal System anatomy Bones, joints
Muscular System function allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture and produces heat
Muscular System anatomy skeletal muscles
Nervous System function as the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
Nervous System anatomy brain, spinal cord, nerves
Endocrine System function glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction and nutrient use (metabolism) by cells
Endocrine System anatomy pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, testis
Cardiovascular System function blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste, etc. The heart pumps the blood
Cardiovascular System anatomy heart, blood vessels
Lymphatic System function Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body
Lymphatic System anatomy Red bone marrow, Thymus, lymphatic vessels, throracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes
Respiratory System function keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Respiratory System anatomy nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus
Digestive System function breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to cells. indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces
Digestive System anatomy oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, anus
Urinary System function eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Urinary System anatomy kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Male Reproduction System function with female reproductive system, to produce offspring. testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract.
Male Reproductive System anatomy prostrate gland, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens
Female Reproductive System function with male reproductive system, to produce offspring. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish new born.
Female Reproductive System anatomy mammary glands, ovary, uterus, uterine tube, vagina
Five Survival Needs nutrients, oxygen, water, normal body temperature, appropriate atmospheric pressure
Nutrients taken via the diet contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building
Carbohydrates major energy fuel for cells
Proteins essential for building cell structures
Fats provide a reserve of energy-rich fuel, also for building cell structures
Minerals and Vitamins required for the chemical reactions in cells and for oxygen transport in blood.
Calcium helps to make bones hard and required for blood clotting
Oxygen required because chemical reactions that release energy from foods are oxidative
Water accounts for 60-80% of body weight; single most abundant chemical in body; provides necessary environment for chemical reactions and fluid base for body secretions and excretions
Normal Body Temperature 37C or 98.6F
Atmospheric Pressure force air exerts on the surface of body; breathing and gas exchange functions depend of appropriate level.
Homeostasis dynamic state of equilibrium or balance, in which internal conditions vary, but are always within relatively narrow limits, even though the outside world changes continuously.
Homeostatic Imbalance body's control systems become less efficient and internal environment becomes less and less stable. Increase risk for illness and produce the changes associated with aging; disease is result.
Two Systems Responsible for Homeostasis nervous and endocrine systems are communication centers using neural electrical impulses or blood borne hormones as information carriers.
Variable the event being regulated
Receptor sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes by sending information (input) to another part of control mechanism
Control center Input flows from another point in control mechanism. Determines the point variable must be maintained. Analyzes the input received and determine appropriate response Information (output) is sent to another component of the control mechanism.
Effector provides means for another component's response as part of the control mechanism to the stimulus.
Afferent Pathway from receptor to control center
Efferent Pathway from control center to effector
Negative Feedback Mechanism Output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity. These mechanisms cause the variable to change in direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning it to its ideal value
Examples of Negative Feedback Regulation of body temperature, Withdrawal reflex from pain, control of blood sugar., regulate heart rate, blood pressure, the rate and depth of breathing, blood levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide and minerals.
Positive Feedback Mechanism the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated.The change that results proceeds in the same direction as the initial change, causing the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range.
Examples of Positive Feedback Uterine contractions during childbirth; blood clotting
Anatomical Position body is erect with feet slightly apart, palms facing forward with thumbs pointing away from body. Right and left refer to those sides of person/cadaver being viewed.
Superior / Cranial toward the head end or upper part of the structure or the body; above
Inferior / Caudal away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Ventral / Anterior toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Dorsal / Posterior toward or at the back of the body; behind
Medial Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Lateral away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Intermediate between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial toward or at the body surface
Deep away from the body surface; more internal
Axial includes head, neck and trunk
Appendicular includes limbs which are attached to body
Cephalic Region HEAD: frontal; orbital; nasal; oral; mental; otic; occipital (back of head)
Cervical Region NECK
Thoracic Region CHEST: sternal; axillary; mammary
Abdominal Region ABDOMEN: umbilical
Pelvic Region inguinal (groin)
Pubic Region gentital
Upper Limb Region ENTIRE ARM: Acromial, brachial (arm); antecubital; olecranal; antebrachial (forearm); carpal (wrist)
Manus Region HAND: pollex; metacarpal; palmar; digital
Lower Limb Region ENTIRE LEG: coxal (hip); femoral (thigh); patellar, cural (leg); sural (calf); fibular or peroneal
Pedal Region FOOT: tarsal (ankle); calcaneal; metatarsal; degital; plantar; Hallux
Back Region DORSAL: scapular, vertebral, lumbar, sacral, gluteal, perineal (between anus and external genitalia)
Section a cut named for the plane along which it is cut
Plane is a flat surface named for direction relative to body. Sagittal, frontal and transverse planes lie at right angles to one another
Sagittal Plane vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal Plane / Medial Plane Sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
Parasagittal Plane Any sagittal plane that is offset from midline
Frontal Plane / Coronal Plane vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse Plane horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Transverse Section Cross Section
Oblique Sections cuts made diagonally between horizontal or vertical planes; seldom used
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging
Dorsal Cavity cranial cavity (brain) and spinal cavity (spinal cord)
Ventral Cavity Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Viscera collectively, organs
Thoracic cavity surrounded by ribs and muscles of the chest. Includes pleural cavities; mediastinum and pericardial cavity.
Diaphragm separates thoracic cavity from abdominopelvic cavity
Pleural cavities each envelope a lung
Mediastinum contains pericardial cavity and surrounds thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea and others)
Pericardial cavity encloses heart
Abdominal cavity contains stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and others
Pelvic Cavity lies in bony pelvis and contains urinary bladder, some reproductive organs and the rectum; bowl shaped pelvis tips wasy from the perpendicular abdominal cavity.
Serous Membrane a thin, double layered membrane
Parietal Serosa the part of the double membrane lining the cavity walls
Visceral Serosa the part of the double membrane lining the organs in the cavity
Serous Fluid separates the perietal and viseral membranes; is secreted by both membranes; allows organs to slide without friction across the cavity walls and one another as they carry out routine functions
Quadrants of Abdominopelvic transverse and median plane pass thru the umbilicus at right angles. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ); Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ); Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ); Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Nine Regions of Abdominopelvic Uses two transverse and two parasagittal planses. Left hypochondriac; epigastric; right hypochondriac; left lumbar; umbilical region; right lumbar; left illiac; hypogastric; right illiac
Oral and Digestive Cavities Commonly called the mouth; contains teeth and tongue. This cavity is part of and continuous with the other cavity named which opens to the body exterior at the anus
Nasal Cavity located within and posterior to the nose; this cavity is part of the repiratory system passageways
Orbital Cavity located in the skull and house the eyes and present them in an anterior position
Middle Ear Cavity located in the skull and lies just medial to the eardrums. contain tiney bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors i the inner ears
Synovial Cavities joint cavities; enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely movable joins. Membranes lining these cavities secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction as the bones move across one another.
Left Hypochonriac Region contains diaphragm; spleen
Epigastric Region contains stomach
Right Hypochondriac Region contains liver; gall bladdar
Left Lumbar Region contains descending colon of large intestines
Umbilical Region contains transverse colon of large intestine; small intestine
Right Lumbar Region Ascending colon of large intestine
Left Illiac Region Initial part of sigmoid colon
Hypogastric Region Urinary bladdar
Right Iliac Region Cecum; appendix
Created by: pchambe6



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