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anatomy final

rods and cones in the retena are photoreceptors, a specialized type of sensory neuron
neurons that excite an effector organ are called motor nerons
which is not part of the CNS: pons, spinal nerves, cerebrum, spinal cord spinal nerves
the sensory fibers in the peripheral nervous system for blood pressure control in blood vessels and peristalsis in the digestive tract are visceral sensory fibers
___ is involuntary increased heart rate at sight of danger
what is a support cell for a neuron Neuoglia, astrocytes, satellite cells
what cleans up damaged nervous tissue microlia
what is myelin sheath useful for isulation, speeding up electrical impulses
made of mail schwa cells in the peripheral nervous system is what myelin sheath
how does an electrical impulse travel dendrite, cell body, axon
where are the vesicles of neurotransmitters released axon terminal
a cell that destroys bone is known as what osteoclast
ossification centers appear, bone matrix is secreted, woven bone and periosteum form, lamellar bone and red bone marrow form is referred to as what bone formation
where is a long bone actively growing during youth on the epiphyseal plate
what is the most important hormone for regulating blood calcium levels parathyroid hormone
how does parathyroid hormone work puts calcium back into the bone
bone growth and remodeling is in response to force or demands place upon it is known as what wolffes law
hematoma, fibrocartilage callus, bony callus, remodeling is the order for what healing of a fracture
osteoid is what matrix produced by the osteocytes
making blood cells is what hematopoiesis
made of lamellar bone compact
has trabeculae spongy bone
branching chains of cells- striations cardiac tissue
single, fusiforms, nuninucleate, no striations smooth tissue
skeletal tissue attach and cover bony skeleton
longest muscle cell and have striations, voluntary skeletal muscle tissue
responsible for overall body mobility skeletal muscle tissue
occurs only in the heart, involuntary cardiac muscle tissue
found in the walls of hollow visceral organs smooth muscle tissue
lacks nerve fibers and is avascular cartilage
hyaline cartilage provides support, covers ends of long bones, absorb compression at joints
elastic cartilage found on the ear and epiglottis
fibrocartilage between hyaline and dense regular connective tissues
resists tension well and has the ability to withstand heavy pressure fibrocartilage
support, protection, and movement are all required for what bone functioning
contains no blood vessels or nerves skeletal cartilage
membrane going around outside of the bone periosteum
inside the bone endosteum
bone making cells osteoblasts
stem cells osteogenic cells
walls of honeycombs terbucleate
you need this before cells are made osteogenic cells
name the functions of bones support, protection, movement
fused bones of skill to enclose the brain and vertebrae around spinal cord are useful in what function of the bone protection
provides framework for the body and cradles its soft organs is part of what function of the bone support
skeletal muscles that attach to bones by tendons are used in what function movement
cartilage grows in what two ways? appositional, interstitial
cartilage forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix against external face of existing cartilage tissue is what appositional growth
lacunae bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage within is what interstitial growth
things that hang off the body is what part of the skeleton appendicular
things that lie in the center of the skeleton is what part of the body axial
the medullary cavity contains fat and is also known as what yellow marrow
what consists of thin plates of spongy bon covered by compact bone and do not have a shaft of epiphyses short, irregular and flat bones
contain a shaft, bone ends and membranes long bones
what is the name of bone ends epiphyses
where does the epiphyseal line lie between the diaphysis and each epiphysis of adult long bone
glistening white double layered membrane is called periosteum
what covers the external surface of the entire bone except joint surfaces periosteum
periosteum is richly supplied with nerve fibers and blood which pass through the shaft to enter the marrow cavity through what nutrient foramina
anchoring points for tendons and ligaments is provided by what periosteum
delicate connective tissue membrane is called endosteum
what does endosteum do covers the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals that pass through compact bone
endosteum contains what kind of cell osteogenic
what is another name for hematopoietic tissue red marrow
where is red marrow found trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and in the dipole of flat bones
in adult long bones the fat containing medullary cavity extends into what and this is present in little amounts in what bone epiphysis, red marrow, spongy bone cavities
blood cell production in adult long bones occur where femur and humerus
if a person becomes very anemic this converts to red marrow yellow marrow in medullary cavity
what is part of bone markings projections, depressions and openings
what does a projection on a bone reveal stress created by muscle attached to and pulling on them or modified surface
what does depression and openings on a bone include and what do they allow fossae, sinuses, foramina, grooves, nerves and blood vessels to pass
osteogenic cells, osteblasts, osteroclasts, bone lining cells and osteocytes and osteoid are part of what organic components of the bone
what is the importance in organic components bone structure and flexibility, tensile strength
sacrificial bonds contributes to what and what do they do bones resilience, they stretch and break easily on impact dissipating energy
balance of bone tissue inorganic hydroxyapatites or mineral salts
in inorganic components the crystals account for what, which allows what hardness, resist compression
what is the reason bones last long after death mineral salts
what provides visible proof of illness when the body uses nutrients to fight disease and bones stop growing growth arrest lines
all bones below the base of the skull except for the clavicle form by what endochondral ossification
endochondral ossification uses what kind of cartilage for bone construction in the second month of deveopment hyaline
where does the formation of a long bone take place primary ossification center
this forms the cranial bones of the skull intramembranous ossification
most bones formed by this process are flat bones intramembranous ossification
name the process in which long bones grow at the epiphyseal plate proliferation, hypertonic, calcification, ossification
cartilage cells undergo mitosis proliferation
older cartilage cells enlarge hypertonic
matrix calcifies, cartilage cells die, matrix begins deteriorating and blood vessels invade cavity calcification
new bones form ossification
comminuted is when bone fragments into three or more pieces
compression is when bone is crushed
spiral is when ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to bone
epiphyseal is when this separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate, occurs where cartilage cells are dying and calcification of matrix is occuring
depressed is when broken bone portion is pressed inward
greenstick means bone breaks incompletely, only one side breaks leaving the other side bending
densely packed in the fiber of mitochondria and other organelles appear to be squeezed between them is known as what myofibrils
myofibrils contain contractile elements of skeletal muscle cells
myopfilaments are smaller structures of myofibrils and are muscle equivalents of the actin or myosin
thin filaments are composed of this actin
kidney shaped polypeptide subunits which bear the active sites to which the myosin heads attach occur when and what is the name of this function contraction, actin
g actin subunits are polymerized into long actin filaments called what filamentous or F
muscle contraction depends on what myosin and actin containing myofilaments
thick filaments are composed of this type of protien myosin
myosin is a protien
each myosin chain contais two heavy and four light polypeptide chains with a rodlike tail attached by a flexible hinge to two globular heads
what is action potential electrical current
automatically propagated along sarcolomma action potential
state of physiological inability to contract even if still receiving stimuli muscle fatigue
intense exercise of short duration contributes to what fatigue
depolarization is useful in what igniting action potential by spreading to adjacent membrane areas and opening voltage gated sodium channels there
Repolarization change in membrane permeability, sodium channels close and voltage potassium channels open. potassium is higher inside the cell so it diffuses out making it more negative inside again
what does the skeletal system do provides framework that the muscles use for movement, protects and supports organs
integumentary system does what forms the external boy coverings and protects deeper tissues from injury
houses cutaneous receptors and synthesizes vitamin d integumentary system
chemical, cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal levels of organization
endocrine system glands that secrete hormones
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood lymphatic system
ability for the body to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even when the outside world changes homeostasis
shuts off the effect of the original stimulus negative feedback
results or response enhances the original stimulus positive feedback
body bplanes frontal, midsaggital, saggital, transverse,oblique
what lies in the right upper quadrant gall bladder, liver
what lies in the left upper qaudrant spleen and stomach
what lies in the lower right quadrant cervical, appendix
what lies in the lower left quadrant descending colon of large intestine
smallest particle of an element that exhibits the properties of that element atom
what is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons atom
what does C stand for carbon
what does H stand for hydrogen
what does Na stand for sodium
what does K stand for potassium
what does N stand for nitrogen
what does Ca stand for and P stand for calcium and phosphorus
c,,o,h,n major life sustaining elements
what is an ionic bond chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of on or more neurtons
how are chemical bonds created electron sharing between atoms
how are the electrons distributed in covalent bonds shared equally between the atom and the molecule
what happens in polar molecules electron sharing is unequal
what are hydrogen bond more like attractions rather than true bonds
weak bonds and give water surface hydrogen bonds
cation is positively changed atoms or molecules
anion is negatively charged atom or molecule
Ph-3 is strongest acid
Ph-12 strongest basic
ph-7 strongest neutral
how many electrons are in the valence shell eight
basic structural unit of all living things is a cell
process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to to daughter nuclei mitosis
coiling of chromosomes, break down the nuclear membrane and daughter cells migrate towards opposite poles prophase
chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate metaphase
daughter chromosomes move toward each pole of a cell anaphase
migration of chromosomes to poles of a cell complete all ends with the formation of two daughter cells telopphase
phospholipid bilayer all biological membranes share a sanction like structure composed of two parallel sheets of phospholipids lying tail to tail with their polar heads exposed to the water on either side with non polar tails both facing eachother
series of integral protein molecules in he plasma membrane tight junctions
what is adp and what does it do adenosine triphoshate stores and releases chemical energy for use in the body cells
produced in mitochondrion by cristae atp
responsible for structure of lines and are proteins histones
what are gap junctions in the cardiac muscles for electrical action
smallest contractive unit of the muscle, found in cardiac and skeletal sacromere
simple sugars monosaccharides
lipids organic compounds formed of C, H, O
HYDROSTATIC pressure back pressure of water against the membrane, seen when membrane is impermeable in solutes but permeable to water
dna replication helicase unzips the double helix while dan polymerase attaches nucleotides
coding sections of a genera are exons
non coding sections of a gene are introns
Created by: jenifercraig