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Roy Linder

Pharmacology 4,5

Parenteral Administration giving medications by injection
Reason for giving meds the parenteral route -used when other routes are ineffective or impractical -best route for emergences -best for those that cannot take oral medications -best if medications would be destroyed be digestive enzymes -used when the patient cannot take meds orally
Types of syringes -the standard hypodermic syringe -the insulin syringe -the tuberculin syringe (do not dis-guard) -prefilled cartridge
Parts of a syringe -tip -barrel -flange(wings) -plunger -plunger end -needle cover -point lumen(hole) -bevel (tip) -shaft -hilt -gauge number -hub
Types of Syringes -insulin syringes 2 sizes(1cc or mL 100 units, 0.5cc or mL 50 units) -Standard hypodermic -tuberculin(T.B. tests) -Prefilled cartridge
Ampule Made if glass (throw away after uses)
Vial Made of glass with a medal and rubber tip(can be reused
Safety with syringes -Safety syringes(needle retracts after use -cover for the needle after use) -Needless systems(with IV therapy)
Reconstituting Powered Drugs -add recommended amount of fluid to a powder
Injection Sites -intradermal(ID) -subcutaneous(subcut) -intramuscular(IM)
Injection sites may be determined by -Type of injection -Patient's build -Patient's age -Sites of other recent injections
Intravenous Therapy -Administration of fluids, electrolytes, medications, blood and nutrients through a vein
Intravenous Therapy Purposes -fluid volume maintenance and replacement therapy -loss od blood, body water, electrolytes, and nutrients -NPO -injection of meds -blood replacement therapy
Classification of Intravenous Solutions -Crystalloids -Colloids -Hydrating solutions -hypertonic- hyperosmolar preparations -Blood or blood components
Crystalloids -Generally, electrolytes such as isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic -solutions that have the ability to form crystals or are capable of crystallization
Colloids -Two separate phases> Dispersed, Continuous phase
Complications of IV therapy -Local infiltration -Pyrogenic reaction -Thrombophlebitis -Circulatory -Air embolism -Phlebitis
Do health care workers need to wear gloves for all parenteral medication administrations? YES.
Forms of Medications -Liquid(solution, syrup, fluids) -semiliquid(tincture) -Solid(capsule, tablets) -Semisolid(suppository, ointments) -suspension(emulsions, gel, lotions, aerosols
a.c. before meals
ad lib. as desired
AM, a.m. Morning
BID,bid Twice a day
h., hr. Hourly
n., noc Nightly
PRN,prn as necessary
q.h. every hour
q2h., q.2h every 2 hours
q3h., q.3h every 3 hours
q4h., q.4h. every 4 hours
QID, qid. four times a day
stat immediately
TID, tid. three times a day
a before
c/o Complains of
DC, d/c Dilute
NKA No known allergies
n.p.o. nothing by mouth
ophth., op Ophthalmic
per by means of
pH hydrogen concentration
PO., p.o. By Mouth
q. every
Rx Take
sig. Label
AD Right ear
AU Both ears
h.s. Bedtime
MS4 Morphine sulfate
MgS Magnesium
OD Right eye
OS Left eye
OU both eyes
Os by mouth, PO, orally
q.d., QD Daily
q.o.d., QOD every other day
SC,SQ,subq subcutaneously
The Seven Rights: rules for Giving Medications -Right drug -Right dose -Right patient -Right route -Right time -Right technique -Right documentation
Problem Oriented Medical Record(POMR) The POMR is organized according to a numbered list of problems or diagnoses. All healthcare teams members chart on the same form, and chart their observations, plans of actions, treatments, and results. They note which problems they are working on using
SOAP Subjective Objective Assessment Plan
Created by: roylin5507