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Sociology 1101

Final Exam Study Guide

What is the definition of society? A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectation.
What is the definition of sociology? The systematic study of human society and social interactions.
What is the definition of socialization? The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
What is Sociological Imagination? C. Wright Mills's term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
What is the definition of culture? The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
What is the Empirical Approach? An approach that attempts to answer questions through systematic collection and analysis of data; referred to as the convention model or "scientific method"; two types of empirical studies that sociologist use: descriptive and explanatory.
What is the Normative Approach? An approach using religion, customs, habits, traditions, and law to answer important questions; based on what is right and wrong and what "ought to be" in society; answers issues such as assisted suicide.
What is the Deductive Approach? An approach that works from more general to the more specific; research begins with a theory and uses research to test the theory; "Top-Down" Approach.
What is the Inductive Approach? An approach moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories; the researcher collects information or data (facts or evidence) and then generates theories from the analysis of that data; "Bottom-Up" Approach.
How do sociologists define technology? As the knowledge, techniques and tools that make it possible for people to transform resources into usable forms, and the knowledge and skills required to use them after they are developed.
What is a self-concept? The totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves.
What is social structure? The complex framework of societal institutions (such as economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on peoples behavior.
What is a stigma? Any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance.
What is an ingroup? A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
What is an outgroup? A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
What is a reference group? A group that strongly influences a person's behavior and social attitude regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
What is a secondary group? A larger, more specialized group in which the members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.
What is compliance? The extent to which people say things so they may gain approval of other people.
What is conformity? The process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group.
How would you define a gang? An ongoing group of people, often young, who band together for purposes generally considered to be deviant or criminal by the larger society.
What is deviance? Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in society.
What is social stratification? The hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources.
What is global stratification? Refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a worldwide basis, resulting in people having vastly different lifestyles and life chances both within and among the nations of the world.
Who is most affected by poverty in low-income economies? Women and children, older African American and Latino/a's
What is standard poverty? An income standard that is based on what is considered to be the minimum amount of money required for living at a subsistence level; involves comparison of personal or household income and social judgments made by researchers.
What is absolute poverty? A level of economic deprivation that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
What is relative poverty? A condition that exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
What is subjective poverty? A state of poverty composed of many dimensions, subjectively present when one's actual income does not meet one's expectations; measured by comparing the actual income against the income earner;s expectations and perceptions.
What is race? A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.
What is an ethnic group? A collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
What is a dominant group? A group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.
What is prejudice? A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
What is racism? A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
________ refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males. Sex
What is gender? The culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with "femininity" and "masculinity."
What is sexism? The subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
What is patriarchy? A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.
What is matriarchy? A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women.
What is aging? The physical, psychological, and social process associated with growing older.
What are Baby Boomers? People born between 1946-1964; partial reason for the median age (the age at which half of the people are younger and half are older) increasing slightly over the past 25 years.
What is off-shoring? Refers to the practice of US companies moving certain operations outside of the country.
What is economy? The social institution that ensures the maintenance of society through the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
What are politics? The social institution through which power is acquires and exercised by some people and groups.
What is government? The formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders.
What is education? The social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure.
What is religion? A system of beliefs, symbols, and rituals based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community.
What is health care? Any activity intended to improve health.
What is social psychology? A sub-field of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution.
What are the 3 processes from which changes in population occur? FERTILITY (the actual level of child bearing for an individual or a population), MORTALITY (the incidence of death in a population), & MIGRATION (the movement of people from one geographical area to another for the purpose of changing residency).
What are protest crowds? Collectives so intensely focused on a specific purpose or object that they may erupt into violent or destructive behavior.
What are the reasons for higher infant mortality rates in low-income countries compared to high-income countries? (a) higher rates of illness & disease, (b) inadequate health care facilities, © malnutrition (insufficient or contaminated food), (d) lack of access to pure, safe water, and (e) inadequate sewage and refuse disposal
Created by: trisha.reid85



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