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A&P Lecture

Chapter 3

Most cells are composed of the following four elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Cells are the building blocks of all living things
Anatomy of the Cell Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Plasma membrane
The Nucleus is Control center of the cell; contains genetic material, DNA
The Nucleus anatomy Nuclear envelope /membrane, Nucleolus & Chromatin
Nuclear envelope Barrier of the nucleus; Consists of a double membrane, contains nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell
Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome assembly Ribosomes migrate into the cytoplasm through nuclear pores
Chromatin Composed of DNA and protein Present when the cell is not dividing Scattered throughout the nucleus Condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides
Plasma Membrane Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails Also contains proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins
Cytoplasm Cytosol Organelles Inclusions
Cytosol Fluid that suspends other elements
Organelles Metabolic machinery of the cell “Little organs” that perform functions for the cell
Inclusions Chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products
Cytoplasmic Organelles Mitochondria,Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum Smooth and Rough, Lysosomes,Peroxisomes, Centrioles, Golgi apparatus,
Mitochondria “Powerhouses” of the cell Change shape continuously Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food Provides ATP for cellular energy
Ribosomes Made of protein and RNA Sites of protein synthesis Found at two locations Free in the cytoplasm As part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Fluid-filled tubules or canals (cisterns) for carrying substances. Accounts for half of the cells membranes.
Two types of ER Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Studded with ribosomes Synthesizes and exports protein
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum metabolizes lipid, cholesterol and detoxification of drugs and pesticides
Lysosomes Contain enzymes produced by ribosomes Packaged by the Golgi apparatus Digest worn-out or non usable materials within the cell
Peroxisomes Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) Replicate by pinching in half
Centrioles Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules Direct the formation of mitotic spindle during cell division
Golgi apparatus Modifies and packages proteins Produces different types of packages Secretory vesicles Cell membrane components Lysosomes
Golgi vesicle containing membrane components fuses with the plasma membrane
Lysosome fuses with ingested substances
Golgi vesicle containing digestive enzymes becomes a lysosome
Cellular Projections:Not found in all cells Cilia, Flagella, Microvilli
Cilia move materials across the cell surface Located in the respiratory system to move mucus
Flagella propel the cell The only flagellated cell in the human body is sperm
Microvilli are tiny, fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane Increase surface area for absorption
Epithelial cells Cells that cover and line body organs
Epithelial cells anatomy Nucleus Intermediate filaments
Skeletal muscle cell anatomy Nuclei Smooth muscle cells
Skeletal muscle cell Cells that move organs and body parts
Fat cell anatomy Lipid droplet Nucleus
Fat cell Cell that stores nutrients
Macrophage Phagocyte cell extends long psedopods to crawl tissue to reach infection sites. the many lysosome within the cell digest the infectious microorganisms it takes up
Macrophage Cell that fights disease
Nerve cell anatomy Rough ER, Nucleus
Nerve cell Cell that gathers information and controls body functions
Cell of reproduction Sperm
Sperm Nucleus, Flagellum
Solution homogeneous mixture of two or more components
Solvent dissolving medium; typically water in the bod
Intracellular fluid nucleoplasm and cytosol
Interstitial fluid fluid on the exterior of the cell
Selective Permeability The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others. This permeability influences movement both into and out of the cell.
Membrane Transport: Two basic methods of transport Passive processes & Active processes
Passive processes No energy is required
Active processes Cell must provide metabolic energy (ATP)
Diffusion Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient
Passive Processes Types of diffusion Simple diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitated diffusion, Passive Processes, Active Processes,
Simple diffusion An unassisted process Solutes are lipid-soluble materials or small enough to pass through membrane pores
Osmosis simple diffusion of water Highly polar water molecules easily cross the plasma membrane through aquaporins
Facilitated diffusion Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport Transports lipid-insoluble and large substances
Passive Processes Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure A pressure gradient must exist Solute-containing fluid is pushed from a high-pressure area to a lower pressure area
Active Processes: Substances are transported that are unable to pass by diffusion Substances may be too lg, Substances may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane, Substances may have to move against a concentration gradient
Active Processes, Two common forms of active transport Active transport (solute pumping) Vesicular transport Exocytosis Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis
Active Processes ATP is used for transport
Epithelium that consist of multiple layers of a cell Stratified
The organelle that consist enzymes produced by ribosomes and packaged by the golgi apparatus is the Lysosomes
the portion of the cells life cycle that does not involve cell division is known as Interphase
Which type of tissue conducts electrochemical impulses Nervous Tissue
the molecule that carries an amino acid to the ribosome for incorporation into a protein is Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Fat is best described as Adipose tissue
Adenine bonds with Thymine
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as Endocrine
Guanine bonds with Cytosine
The type of muscle found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach and the walls of blood vessels is Smooth mucles
A single layer of flatten cell would best be described as Simple Squamous
Type of active process in which the cell secrets vesicles Exocytosis
Organelle that captures energy to produce ATP MItochondria
The type of muscle found in the heart movement is involuntary and cells possess stiations Cardiac
Organelle that package substances for release from cell Golgi apparatus
Aide Protein Synthesis Ribosomes
Type of passive process in which water is moved through aquapororins Osmosis
list the 4 major tissue types Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nervous tissue
the phases of Mitosis in order Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
Rough ER Has all essential material for building in the cell and assembles it it is considered the factory of the cell
Cytoskeleton elaborated network of protein structures extends throughout the cytoplasm; acts like bones and muscle for cell shape and support of organelles
Created by: 1815104090



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