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Yellow Module

Yellow Module Respiratory Review

Describe the nasal cavity. Chamber lined with mucous membranes and tiny cilia.
What are olfactory neurons? Receptors for the sense of smell.
What happens to CO2 as it enters pulmonary capillaries? It diffuses from the blood within the pulmonary capillaries and enters alveolar spaces.
What happens to the diaphragm when we breathe? Contracts during inspirations Relaxes during expiration.
What is external respiration? Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and the blood in pulmonary capillaries.
What is internal respiration? Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the body cells and the blood in systemic capillaries.
What is pulmonary ventilation? Breathing.
Describe the transport of respiratory gases? When blood transports CO2 to the lungs and O2 to the body cells.
What is the respiratory system responsible for? Exchange of O2 and CO2.
What are exudates? Fluid that is usually high in protein and often contains blood and immune cells.
What are transudates? Non-inflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with slightly less protein.
What are the causes of asthma? Allergens, irritants, stress, cold, exercise.
What are the three major disorders included in COPD? Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema.
What is emphysema? Characterized by decreased elasticity of the alveoli.
ABG arterial blood gases
AFB acid-fast bacillus
AP anteroposterior
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
CO2 carbon dioxide
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT computed tomography
DPI dry powder inhaler
FVC forced vital capacity
Hb hemoglobin
HMD hyaline membrane disease
Hx history
IRDS infant respiratory distress syndrome
MDI metered-dose inhaler
NMT nebulized mist treatment
O2 oxygen
PFT pulmonary function tests
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
RDS respiratory distress syndrome
SOB shortness of breath
T&A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TB tuberculosis
TPR temperature, pulse, respirations
URI upper respiratory infection
VC vital capacity
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
cystic fibrosis hereditary disease of the exocrine glands, effects respiratory system, pancreas and sweat glands.
rhonchus Abnormal breath sounds heard on auscultation.
crackle Abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation. Also called rafe.
anosmia Absence of the sense of smell.
pertussis Acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound.
tuberculosis (TB) An infectious disease caused by inhaling viable tubercle bacilli: aka acid-fast bacillus.
pneumonia An inflammatory disease of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, disease, chemicals, etc.
antihistamine Block histamines from binding with histamine receptor sites in tissues.
atelectasis Collapsed or airless state of the lung, may be acute or chronic.
palatine tonsils Collection of lymphatic tissue within the oropharynx.
asphyxia Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen.
pneumoconiosis Disease caused by inhaling dust particles.
compliance Ease with which lung tissue can be stretched.
pleural effusion Excess fluid in the pleural cavity.
pleurectomy Excision of part of the pleura.
pneumectomy Excision of a lung.
viscous Extremely thick.
stridor High-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound.
thoracic (chest) x-ray Images of the chest taken from AP, PA and lateral views.
pleurisy Inflammation of the pleural membrane.
Mantoux test Intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity.
sweat test Measurement of the amount of salt in sweat, used to diagnose CF.
spirometry Measurement of ventilator ability by assessing lung capacity and flow.
oximetry Method of monitoring the percent of Hb saturated with O2.
diffuse Moving or spreading out of a substance at random.
pulmonary function test (PFTs) Multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air.
epistaxis Nosebleed.
lung scan Nuclear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli.
postural drainage Positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs.
antitussive Relieve or suppress coughing.
bronchospasms Spasms in the bronchial passage.
bronchodilators Stimulate bronchial muscles to relax and expand air passages.
thoracentesis Surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity.
carbon dioxide (CO2) Tasteless, colourless, odourless gas produced by body cells during the metabolic process.
oxygen (O2) Tasteless, colourless, odourless gas essential for human respiration.
apnea Temporary loss of breathing.
arterial blood gases (ABG) Test that measures PO2, PCO2, pH and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample.
throat culture Test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci.
visceral pleura The innermost layer lying next to the lung.
parietal pleura The outermost layer, lining the lung.
percussion The process of gently tapping with the fingers to determine position, size or consistency of an underlying structure.
auscultation The process of listening to body sounds, especially in the chest, with the use of a stethoscope.
oxygenation The process of providing the body with adequate amounts of oxygen
pharynx Throat.
alive Viable.
Laryngoscopy Visual examination of the larynx.
mediastinoscopy Visual examination of the mediastinal structures.
Larynx Voice box.
Wheeze Whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation.
trachea Windpipe.
Created by: Barbara Ross