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Intro to Bone

Bone Introduction

The Skeletal System is composed of________? Bones, Cartilage, and Ligaments.
________ hold bones together at the joints. Ligaments
________ are similar to ligaments- but attach muscle to bones. Tendons (Dense Regular Connective tissue)
Skeletal Function 'Support':________ Supports body upright and provides shape to body.
Skeletal function 'Movement':________ Skeletal muscles attach to bone to produce movement.
Skeletal function 'Protection':________ Protects organs from injury.example: Skull/Brain, Ribs/Lungs
Skeletal function 'Blood Formation':_______ 'Red Bone Marrow'- major producer of blood cells.
Skeletal function '_________': stores calcium and phosphate - and releases them when needed. 'Electrolyte Balance'
Skeletal Function '_________': bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes. 'Acid-base balance'
Skeletal function 'Detoxification':________ Bone tissue removes heavy metals and other foreign elements from the blood.
Bone or osseous tissue is a _________ tissue. Connective
______ is hardened by the deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals. Matrix
The hardening process of bone(s) matrix is called? Mineralization or Calcification.
Long Bones: cylindrical in shape and significantly longer than they are wide. Example:_______ Femur, Radius, and Ulna.
Short Bones: nearly equal in length and width, limited motion, usually glide next to one another. Example? Talus (ankle joint) and Carpals (wrist bones).
Flat Bones: enclose and protect organs- providing broad surface(s) for muscle attachment. Example? Scapula (protects ribs) and Sternum (protects heart and lungs)
Irregular Bones: elaborate shapes... Example? Sphenoid bone and Vertebrae
_________ is the outer shell of dense white osseous tissue. Compact (dense) bone
Compact bone encloses ________, which is a more loosely organized form of bone. Spongy (cancellous) bone
_______-shaft, cylinder of compact bone enclosing a space called the medullary cavity. Diaphysis
_______ is the expanded head(s) of bones- providing surface area for ligament & tendon attachments- filled w/ spongy bone. Epiphysis
Medullary cavity is filled with_______? Bone Marrow
_________is found in children and adolescents and is made up of hylaine cartilage separating the marrow spaces of the epiphysis and diaphysis. Epiphyseal Plate
The epiphyseal _____ occurs in the bone after mature growth. line
The sheath of tissue that surrounds the bone that has a tough outer fibrous layer of collagen is called the _____? Periosteum
Blood vessels of the periosteum are called ______? Nutrient Arteries
The thin layer that lines the internal surface of bone is the _______? Endosteum
What kind of cartilage is located at the ends of adjoining bones in most joints? Articular or Hyaline cartilage.
In the skull- the spongy layer between the two layers of compact bone is called the _____? Diploe (it absorbs shock - so the inner layer of compact bone isn't damaged)
Osseous Tissue (connective bone tissue) is made up of_____, _____, and _____ ? Cells, fibers, and ground substance.
The ________ cells are the stem cells found in the endosteum, inner layer of the periosteum, and within the central canals of the osteon. Osteogenic cells (the only cells that undergo mitosis).
the bone forming cells that synthesize the organic matter and help to mineralize bone are_______. Osteoblasts (responds to stress on bone by accelerating the mitosis of osteogenic cells- resulting in an increase of osteoblasts). Non-mitotic
Former osteoblasts that become trapped in the matrix are______? Osteocytes
Osteocytes live in tiny cavities called______? Lacunae
The cells within a bone that are called the strain sensors are the _______? Osteocytes
The ____ ____ of the osteocytes connect to each other via gap junctions, allowing them to pass nutrients and chemical signals to each other. Cytoplasmic Process
The bone dissolving macrophages found on the bones surface are _________. They are formed when several stem cells fuse together and are unusually large cells. Osteoclasts
Osteoclasts are stimulated by : 1. lack of bone stress and movement(bed rest,brace/cast) 2. Steroid drugs 3. Decreased estrogen or testosterone. 4. Anti-estrogen drugs( used to prevent and fight breast cancer).
Bone Matrix is made up of 1/3________material and 2/3_______material. This combo allows bone strength and flexibility. Organic material(collagen, protein-carbohydrate) and inorganic material.
________in bone gives it the ability to resist tension. Collagen
______ ______ are layers of matrix concentrically arranged around a central canal. Concentric lamellae
______ canal contains blood vessels and nerves and runs proximal-distal within the bone. Central Canal
Central canal and its concentric lamellae form an ______. The basic structural unit of compact bone. Osteon
________ are tiny cavities that house the osteocytes. They lie between the adjacent layers of the matrix. Lacunae
The inner and outer boundaries of compact bone are arranged in ______ _______ that run parallel to the bone surface. Circumferential Lamellae
Between osteons, you can find irregular patches of ______ ______- remains of old osteons that have broken down as the bone grew. Interstitial Lamellae
Spongy bone consists of thin plates called _____, and rods and spines called ______? Trabeculae and Spicules
Bone Marrow is a soft tissue that occupies: 1.______ 2.______ 3.______ 1. the medullary cavity of a long bone. 2. the spaces within the trabeculae of spongy bone. 3. and the larger central canals.
________ is a hemopoitic tissue- which produces red blood cells. Red bone marrow
With age, the red bone marrow is gradually replaced with the fatty _______. Yellow bone marrow
By early adulthood, red bone marrow is limited to : 1._____ 2._____ 3._____ 4._____ 5._____ 1. vertebrae 2. sternum 3. ribs 4. pectoral and pelvic girdle 5. proximal heads of femur and humerus
Formation of bone is called _______ or _______. Ossification(fetal skulls) or Osteogenesis(undergoes mitosis).
Two methods of ossification and osteogenesis are_______ and _______. Endochondral Ossification and Intramembranous Ossification.
The formation of long bones is_________, which is the process by which bone develops from hyaline cartilage. Endochondral Ossification
The process that produces the flat bones of the skull and most of the clavicle is_____. Intramembranous Ossification
Cartilage grows by what two mechanisms? 1. Interstitial growth (adding more matrix internally) 2. Appositional growth (adding more to the surface)
_________ growth at the epiphyseal plate adds length to bones and mature bones grow only with _______ growth. Interstitial growth and Appositional growth
Name 5 factors that Promote Bone Deposition. 1. calcium and phosphate- raw materials for ground substance 2. Vitamin C - promotes linking of collagen and other connective tissues. 2.Vitamin D - for calcium absorption. 3.Growth Hormone - promotes intestinal absorption of calcium 4. Sex Steroids
Name 1 factor that promotes Bone Resorption. Parathyroid hormone- is released in response to low blood calcium to promote osteoclasts.
_________ is the loss of bone that is severe enough to compromise physical activity and health. Osteoporosis (porous bones)
Created by: Anniemal



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