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The Cell

TermDefinition
Cell Theory -All living things are composed of cells. -The cell is the basic functional unit of life. -Cells arise only from pre-existing cells. -Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA. The genetic material is passed from parent to daughter cell
Prokaryote (organisms) Include bacteria as well as blue-green algae.
Prokaryote (characteristics) -A cell wall is present in all prokaryotes. -No nucleus. -Ribosomes (30S and 50S). -No membrane-bound organelles. -Unicellular -Circular DNA (Plasmids)
Spherical Bacteria indicator -Cocci
Rod-shaped Bacteria indicator -Bacilli
Eukaryote (organism) Protists, fungi, plants, and animals
Eukaryote (characteristics) -Cell wall present in fungi, plants, and some protists, but not in animals -Nucleus -Ribosomes (40S and 60S) -Membrane-bound organelles -Unicellular or multicellular
Cell membrane Made of a phospholipid bilayer. Studded with proteins and lipid rafts, these control the movement of solutes into and out of the cell.
Transport proteins Allow polar molecules and ions to move in and out of the cell
Cell Adhesion Molecules Proteins that allow cells to recognize each other and contribute to proper cell differentiation and development.
Nucleus The control center of the cell. It contains the cell's genetic material, DNA, which serves to direct protein synthesis and serves as a genetic blueprint during cell replication.
Nucleolus A subsection of the nucleus where rRNA is synthesized
Ribosomes Responsible for protein production. Ships the new protein to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Endoplasmic reticulum Just outside the nucleus, the ER takes what the ribosomes provide and sends them to the correct location
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Works toward lipid synthesis and detoxification of drugs and poisons
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Moreso, directly involved in the production of protein products
Golgi apparatus A series of membrane-bound sacs that receives material from the smooth ER and then repackages them to send to the cell surface for exocytosis. [Smooth ER breaks down poison and drugs. Get rid of them!!]
Vesicles and vacuoles Used to transport and store materials that are ingested, secreted, processed, or digested by the cell.
Lysosome Take in garbage material and using hydrolyitic (acidic) enzymes, they break down materials ingested by the cell.
Mitochondria Used for respiration of the cell. They contain some of their own genes and replicate independently of the nucleus via binary fission.
Microbodies Catalyze specific types of reactions by sequestering the necessary enzymes and substrates.
Peroxisomes A specific microbody responsible for the creation of hydrogen peroxide within a cell and is used to break down fats into usable molecules
Glyoxysomes A specific microbody responsible for germinating plants, where they convert fats to usable fuel (sugars) until the plants can make its own energy via photosynthesis.
Chloroplast Containing chlorophyll, they are responsible for the generation of energy using water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight.
Cell wall Surrounds the cell for both defense and increased stability. All plant cells have a cell wall (cellulose), fungi do too (chitin), and not all protists do. Animals do not have cell walls.
Centrioles Organize the spindle apparatus on which chromosomes move during mitosis.
Cytoskeleton A transport system composed of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.
Microfilaments Made up of solid polymerized rods of actin. They interact with myosin in reference to muscular contraction.
Microtubules Hollow polymers of tubulin proteins. They provide the largest roads for transport as well as structural support. They are involved in chromosomal separation during Mitosis and Meiosis.
Intermediate filaments A collection of fibers that help maintain the overall integrity of the cytoskeleton
Pinocytosis The endocytosis of fluids and dissolved particles
Phagocytosis The ingestion of large solids such as bacteria.
Simple diffusion Going from high to low concentration, without the use of a protein and energy, small, nonpolar molecules move through the cell membrane
Osmosis Going from high to low concentration, without the use of a protein and energy, H2) goes through the plasma membrane
Facilitated Diffusion Going from high to low concentration, with the use of a protein, but NO energy, large, polar, and ionic molecules move through the cell membrane
Active Transport Going from low to high concentration, with the use of a protein and energy (ATP), molecules move through the cell membrane.
Epithelial tissue The tissue that covers the body and line its cavities. It provides a means for protection against invasion and dessication. Also, it is involved in absorption, secretion, and sensation.
Connective tissue Supports the body and provides a framework for higher-level interactions. [Bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue, and blood are all connective tissues]
Nervous tissue Consisting of neurons, they make use of electrochemical gradients to allow for cellular signaling and the coordinated control of multiple tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Muscle tissue Three types: -Skeletal (Voluntary) -Smooth (Involuntary) -Cardiac (Involuntary)
Viruses Acellular structures with a protein coat (capsid), that contain nuclear information (circular/linear, single/double stranded, DNA/RNA).
Virion After hijacking a cell's machinery, a virus will replicate and turn out new copies of itself known as virions, which can be released to infect new cells
Bacteriophages Viruses that specifically target bacteria. Injecting their genetic material inside the cell and leaving the remaining structures outside.
Created by: chri14