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A&P1 - Ch 1-16

Chapters 1-16

TermDefinition
Abdominal Pertaining to the belly region
Anatomy The body study of structures
Appendicular Arms and legs of the body
Axial Head, neck, and trunk of the body
Cranial Cavity in the head that houses the brain
Greater omentum An extension of the peritoneal membrane, that looks like a fatty apron lying over the abdominal viscera, and extends from the inferior margin of the stomach
Homeostasis An internal environment the body must maintain for normal functioning
Meninges 3 layers of membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Mesentery Fold of the peritoneum (attaches organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen; contains blood vessels and nerves, going to individual organs)
Negative feedback Process the body uses to reverse the direction of movement away from homeostasis
Parietal Part of a serous membrane not in direct contact with a organ
Pelvic Cavity in the inferior trunk that houses the urinary bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs
Peritoneum Serous membrane that surrounds the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
Physiology The study of how the body's structures function
Pleura Serous membrane surrounding each lung individually
Positive feedback The process the body uses to increase movement away from homeostasis
Proximal Closer to the connection of the body, point of attachment or origin (the elbow is proximal to the wrist)
Serous membrane Double-layered membrane that contains fluid between the 2 layers
Thoracic Cavity in the superior trunk (chest)
Visceral Part of a serous membrane in direct contact with a organ
Acne Inflamed or infected sebaceous glands in the skin
Contact inhibition the end of keratinocyte lateral growth because edges of stratum basale cells are in contact with each other
Cornification Process in which keratinocytes fill with keratin and die as they move toward the surface of the epidermis
Cutaneous Pertaining to the skin
Epidermis Superficial layer of the skin that is subdivided into 4 or 5 general layers called strata
Exocrine glands Glands that produce and secret products that are delivered to the appropriate locations through ducts
Fibrosis Wound healed with scar tissue; normal function is not returned
First-degree burn A burn that involves only the epidermis and whose symptoms include redness, pain, and swelling; the most common type of burn
Keratin A hard, waterproof protein
Mediators of inflammation Chemicals produced by damaged tissues and diffuse away from the damaged area causing any blood vessels they meet to dilate
Melanocytes Cells found in the stratum basale that produce skin pigments called melanin
Papillae bumps on the superficial edge of the dermis in direct contact with the epidermis (found on palmar & plantar surfaces & tongue)
Pathogens Disease-causing foreign invaders
Regeneration Wound healing with the same tissue that was damaged; normal function is returned
Sebum A very oily, lipid-rich substance produced by the sebaceous gland to moisturize the skin and hair
Stratum basale The deepest layer of the epidermis and the only one with cells that actively grow and divide to produce new epidermis
Subcutaneous layer Layer of skin, technically not part of the skin, deep to the dermis and attaches skin to the rest of the body
Sweat glands 4 types of exocrine glands that are located in the dermis (merocrine, apocrine, ceruminous, mammary)
Thin skin Epidermis that contains hair follicles and lacks stratum lucidum
Wound contracture Scab formation that pulls the edges of the wound closer together as it dries
Absorption Process of putting something into the blood for the first time
Appendicular skeleton Bones of the arms, legs, pectoral and pelvic girdles
Appositional bone growth Type of growth that occurs in all bones making them more massive (and able to handle stress)
Axial skeleton Bones of the head, neck and trunk
Cancellous bone Bone connective tissue with a spongy appearance, caused by trabecular; found in the end of long bones & in the middle of flat and irregular bones
Chondrocyte Cartilage cell that produces a cartilage matrix of proteoglycans and water. (cells in cartilage connective tissue)
Comminuted A fracture in which the bone is broken into 3 or more pieces (commonly referred to as shattered)
Compact bone Bone connective tissue arranged in a series of osteons found in the shafts of long bones and the surfaces of flat and irregular bones.
Deposition The process of putting calcium phosphate crystals into the bone
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone (has a fibrous covering called periosteum and is a source of osteoblasts)
Endochondral ossification Process that forms long bones
Epiphyseal plate Cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis in an immature long bone
Fontanelle Membranous area between flat bones of the skull, eventually replaced by a suture (fibrous joint). Commonly called 'soft spot'.
Foramen magnum Opening found in occipital bone, allows spinal cord to exit the cranial cavity
Hydroxyapatite Calcium phosphate mineral salt that makes up the mineral matrix of bone connective tissue (make the matrix hard)
Meniscus Fibrocartilage pad in the knee between the femur and the tibia
Osteons Haverisan system. Target-like arrangement of bone connective tissue found in compact bone
Reabsorption The process of putting something into the blood again, not the first time
Synovial membrane Membrane lining the joint space of a synovial joint (soft tissue found between the articular capsule (joint capsule) and the joint cavity of synovial joints)
Trabeculae Sliver-like or plate-like arrangement of bone connective tissue found in cancellous bone (gives it a spongy appearance)
Acetylcholine (ACh) Neurotransmitter released to stimulate a contraction of skeletal muscle tissue. (must meet threshold amount for muscles to react; adding more ACh to the threshold will not give bigger response)
Aerobic respiration Type of cellular respiration requiring oxygen that results in enough energy to generate 36 ATP molecules from each glucose molecule & produces carbon dioxide & water. (for endurance; converts pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide & water) See slow-twitch fibers.
Anaerobic respiration Type of cellular respiration in the absence of O2 resulting in enough energy to generate 2 ATP molecules from each glucose molecule & produce lactic acid (bursts of energy; converts pyruvic acid to lactic acid as a waste product.) See fast-twitch fibers
Antagonist A muscle that has an opposite action (ex: raise hand from waist to mouth-biceps brachii contract (shorten) & triceps brachii relax (lengthen)
Extension The ability to be stretched (action that bends a part of the body posteriorly, such as straightening the arm at the elbow.)
Fascicle Group of muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium
Fatigue The inability of a muscle to fully respond to a nerve impulse.
Flexion Action that bends a part of the body anteriorly, such as flexing the elbow
Insertion The attachment of a muscle to a bone or structure that does move when the muscle contracts.
Isometric A type of contraction in which the length of the muscle remains constant while the tension in the muscle increases. (muscles stays the same)
Isotonic A type of contraction in which the tension in the muscle remains constant and motion is the result. (muscle shortens & lengthens. Ex: boxer moving his arm during the punch, the tension in his muscles remained constant and motion was the result.)
Lever A rigid object that can be used to lift something. Bones act as levers in lever systems that muscles use to move the body.
Motor unit A single nerve cell and all the muscle cells it stimulates
Muscle twitch The contraction of one muscle cell due to one nerve impulse
Origin The attachment of a muscle to a bone or structure that does not move when the muscle contracts
Recruitment The process of getting more and more motor units involved in a contraction to create a larger motion. (ex: there is rapid recruitment in a boxer’s punch)
Sarcomere A section of a myofibril extending from one Z line to the next
Sliding filament theory An explanation of muscle contraction that involves thick myofilaments grabbing thin myofilaments and pulling them toward the center of the sarcomere
Synergists Muscles that have the same action (ex: raise hand from waist to mouth-biceps brachii contract (shorten) & triceps brachii relax (lengthen)
Tetany A sustained contraction brought about by a high frequency of nerve impulses. (ex: like holding a pencil, muscles can’t enter relaxation phase or you’ll drop the pencil. (a sustained contraction brought about by a high frequency of nerve impulses.)
Action potential Flow of electricity along an axon of a neuron in one direction – from the trigger zone to the synaptic knob
Afferent Sensory neurons carry receiving/incoming messages to the brain or spinal cord in the nervous system
Autonomic Nerve message sent to glands, cardiac muscle of the heart, or smooth muscle of hollow organs & blood vessels
Axon Portion of a neuron that carries electrical impulses along its length from the cell body to the synaptic knobs at the end of the neuron
Bipolar Neuron. Type of sensory neuron with one dendrite and one axon; found in the nasal cavity, retina, inner ear
Cerebrospinal fluid Fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord that is made by ependymal cells lining cavities in the brain called ventricles
Decremental Decrease with distance (effects of a local potential decrease with distance; therefore a local potential is also decremental)
Dendrite Portion of a neuron that receives information
Depolarize To change the charge across the cell membrane of a neuron by the flow of sodium into the cell
Efferent Motor neurons carry sending/outgoing messages away from the brain or spinal cord in the nervous system
Multipolar Neurons. The most common type of neuron in the brain and spinal cord; has multiple dendrites and an axon that may or may not have a collateral branch
Myelin A lipid-rich intermittent covering over the axons of some neurons. Gaps in the myelin sheath are called nodes of Ranvier
Neuroglia Cells that aid neurons in their functions (support cells for each neuron "nerve glue")
Parasympathetic Division of the autonomic nervous system that sends electrical messages to carry out functions for vegetative activities such as digestion, defecation, and urination
Reflex An involuntary, predictable, motor response to a stimulus without conscious thought
Repolarize To change the charge across the cell membrane of a neuron by the opening of potassium channels to allow the flow of potassium
Resting membrane potential A difference in charge across the cell membrane of a neuron created by the presence of many large negative ions inside the cell and many positive sodium ions outside the cell
Sympathetic Division of the autonomic nervous system that sends electrical messages to prepare the body for physical activity often referred to as fight or flight
Synapse Junction formed by the neuron’s synaptic knob with another cell (gland cell, muscle cell, or dendrite of another neuron)
Unipolar Neuron. Type of sensory neuron that appears to have one process that serves as dendrite and axon with the cell body pushed off to the side
Accommodation Ability of the eye to change the shape of the lens to keep an image in focus with a change in distance
Dynamic equilibrium Equilibrium perceived when the head is rotating
Gustation The sense of taste
Humor Fluid found in the eye (aqueous humor & vitreous humor)
Hyperopia Farsightedness caused by the cornea and lens focusing an image behind the retina
Lacrimal Pertaining to tears
Lingual Pertaining to the tongue
Myopia Nearsightedness caused by the cornea and lens focusing an image ahead of the retina
Nociceptor Pain receptor that detects tissue injury or potential tissue injury
Olfactory Pertaining to the sense of smell
Otoliths Calcium carbonate and protein granules located in the saccule and utricle of the inner ear
Perilymph Fluid found in the cochlea of the inner ear
Presbyopia A decreased ability of the eye to accommodate (lens of the eye loses its ability to focus, making it difficult to see objects up close)
Receptive field An area in which a single neuron is responsible for detecting a stimulus
Refraction The bending of light as it passes through materials of different densities
Sensorineural Type of hearing loss caused by a problem with the organ of Corti or the auditory nerve
Static equilibrium Equilibrium perceived when the head is stationary or moving in a straight line
Umami A meaty taste derived from some amino acids binding to taste buds
Vestibular apparatus Anatomy used to perceive equilibrium; includes the saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals of the inner ear
Visual acuity Ability to discern visual detail. The best visual acuity is the sharpest vision
Androgens Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; responsible for male secondary sex characteristics & for sex drive in both genders
Autocrine The secretion of a hormone by the cells of the same tissue that it targets
Down-regulation A decrease in the number of receptors for a given hormone, causing the cell to become less sensitive to the hormone
Endocrine Refers to hormones that travel through the blood to get to their target tissue
Gland A structure on its own or groups of cells within an organ that function to produce hormones
Glucocorticoids Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that stimulate the breakdown of protein and fat to make glucose, suppress the immune system, and reduce inflammation
Gonads Ovaries in women, testes in men
Half-life The length of time it takes for one-half of a substance to be eliminated from the cardiovascular system
Hormone Chemical used in the endocrine system to carry messages
Mineralocorticoids Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that promote sodium and water reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidney to maintain blood volume and pressure
Pancreatic islets 1-2 million groups of endocrine cells in the pancreas that produce the hormones insulin and glucagon
Paracrine Term that refers to hormones that work on neighboring cells without having to go through the blood to get to the target tissue
Pheromone Term that refers to chemicals that cause a response outside the body, in another individual
Plasma protein Transport protein (made by the liver) that binds to a hormone in the blood to extend its half-life
Receptor Shape-specific binding site for a hormone
Second messenger Chemical created by the binding of a hormone in a receptor on the cell membrane; the second messenger carries the information to where it is needed in the cell to initiate the function of the hormone
Secondary sex characteristics Gender-specific characteristics developed at puberty due to estrogen in females and testosterone in males.
Target tissue Cells of a tissue that have receptors for a specific hormone
Thyroid hormone Collective term for the chemicals T3 and T4; their function is to increase metabolism in most tissues
Up-regulation An increase in the number of receptors for a given hormone, causing the cell to become more sensitive to the hormone
Agglutination An immune response in which antibodies clump cells with specific antigens
Clotting factor An inactive chemical in the blood that, when activated, promotes a reaction cascade to form a clot
Coagulation Blood clotting; the third step in hemostasis
Erythrocyte Red blood cell
Erythropoietin (EPO) Chemical produced by the kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production when the oxygen blood level is low
Fibrin A solid protein fiber necessary for blood clot formation
Fibrinogen Protein dissolved in plasma that is the precursor to fibrin
Formed elements The cells and cell parts found in blood
Granulocyte Any of 3 types of leukocytes containing small granules that differ in color when stained (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils)
Hematocrit A test that measures the percentage of erythrocytes to whole blood
Hemocytoblast A starting cell for the production of all the formed elements; stem cell
Hemoglobin A red, complex protein that is made of four chains of amino acids found in red blood cells and that functions to carry oxygen
Hemopoiesis Blood production (hemo-blood, poiesis-make)
Hemostasis 3 step process (vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation) that stop bleeding
Leukocyte White blood cell 5 types (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes)
Lymphoid Type of hemopoiesis that produces lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues outside the red bone marrow
Myeloid Type of hemopoiesis that produces all the formed elements in the red bone marrow
Pluripotent The ability to become cells of differing types. (Ex: hemocytoblast can become any one of eight different formed elements)
Serum Plasma with the fibrinogen and clotting factors removed
Thrombocyte One type of formed element of the blood; commonly called platelet
Afterload The pressure in the pulmonary trunk and aorta during diastole
Anastomoses Circulatory routes that involve vessels merging together
Angiogenesis New blood vessel growth
Arrhythmia Abnormal heart rhythm
Atherosclerosis Buildup of fatty deposits within arterial walls, which causes the walls to roughen and project to the lumen (open space) within the vessel
Baroreceptors Sensors located in the aorta and carotid arteries that detect changes in blood pressure
Cardiac cycle One complete contraction and relaxation of the heart
Cardiac output The amount of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart each minute (CO = HR [heart rate or beats per min] x SV [stroke volume]; CO written as __ mL/min)
Chronotropic factor Anything that changes the heart rate (of the autonomic nervous system)
Diastole Relaxation of a heart chamber, usually refers to the action of the ventricles
Intercalated disks Specialized junctions between cardiac muscle cells that enable the fast transmission of electrical impulses form one cell to another
Ischemia The lack of blood flow
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) The average pressure arteries must be able to withstand (MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure)
Portal route A circulatory route that contains 2 capillary beds before blood is returned to the heart (heart → arteries → capillaries → intervening vessels → capillaries → veins → heart)
Preload The amount of tension in the myocardium of the ventricular walls
Pulse pressure The surge of pressure that small arteries must withstand with each ventricular contraction (pulse pressure = systolic pressure - diastolic pressure)
Stroke volume The amount of blood ejected from each ventricle per beat
Systole Contraction of a heart chamber, usually refers to the action of the ventricles
Tunics 3 layers of a vessel wall (arteries & veins)
Venous return The process of returning blood to the heart through veins
Acquired immunity How forms of specific immunity are acquired (Ex: natural active immunity, natural passive immunity, artificial active immunity, and artificial passive immunity)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Final stage of an HIV infection, in which the immune system fails to provide protection against pathogen
Anaphylaxis Systemic vasodilation (system wide dilation of blood vessels) that occurs within a few minutes of exposure to an allergen and can cause a drop in blood pressure and even cardiac failure
Antigen-presenting cell (APC) A cell that samples its environment and posts what it finds. (Ex: B cells and macrophages)
Cellular immunity Form of specific immunity that involves Tcytotoxic cells directly attacking cells with a foreign antigen.
Chemotaxis Process in which WBC’s move to where the concentration of chemicals from damaged tissues is the greatest
Complement system 20 inactive proteins (always present in the blood) that, when activated by the presence of a pathogen, initiate one of several pathways to ensure pathogen destruction.
Diapedesis Process in which WBC’s crawl through vessel walls
Epitope Antigen fragment
Humoral immunity Form of specific immunity that involves B cells making antibodies to attack a foreign antigen. Also called antibody-mediated immunity
Interferons Chemicals that are released by virally infected cells and encourage surrounding healthy cells to make antiviral proteins so that the virus will not invade them
Interleukins Chemicals used by lymphocytes to communicate with one another
Lymph Fluid that is derived from blood and is similar to plasma but has fewer proteins
Lymphadenitis Condition in which a pathogen is under attack by a lymph node's lymphocytes, resulting in the lymph node becoming swollen and painful to the touch
Major histocompatibility complex (MHS) Protein molecule used by antigen-present cells (APC) to display an epitope
Margination Process in which WBC’s stick to the walls of dilated vessels in an inflamed area
Molecular mimicry A situation in which one molecule is so similar in structure to another molecule that it is mistaken for the other molecule
Nonspecific resistance Type of defense that works to fight a variety of pathogens without the need for prior exposure (consists of two lines of defense: external barriers & inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, fever, and other active attacks)
Pyrogen Chemical that initiates a fever
Specific immunity A line of defense that requires a prior exposure to a specific pathogen so the system can fight it off faster and stronger if the pathogen ever occurs in the body again (process is to recognize, react, and remember the pathogen)
Alveoli Tiny air sacs in the lung at which gas exchange takes place. (blood flow exchanges oxygen & carbon dioxide)
Bronchial tree Series of ever-decreasing-size tubes branching form the bronchi and ending with bronchioles in the lungs
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) Disorders that cause a long-term decrease in ventilation of the lungs
Compliance Measurement of how well the lungs can expand and return to shape
Expiration Movement of air out of the lungs
Functional residual capacity (FRC) The amount of air remaining in the lungs after the expiration of a normal breath at rest
Gas exchange The movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide that occurs between capillary blood and the alveoli in the lungs and between capillary blood and the tissues of the body
Gas transport The movement of gases in the blood to and from the lungs and tissues
Inspiration Movement of air into the lungs
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) The amount of air that can be forcefully inspired beyond the amount inspired in a normal breath at rest
Partial pressure The amount of pressure an individual gas contributes to the total pressure of a mixture of gases
Pharynx Throat. An area that is divided into 3 sections based on location and anatomy (the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, the laryngopharynx)
Pneumothorax **No per instructor** A condition in which air is introduced in the pleural cavity between the pleural membranes; commonly called a collapsed lung
Respiratory membrane **No per instructor** A membrane that is composed of a thin layer of water with surfactant in the alveoli, a single squamous cell alveolar wall, and a single cell capillary wall and across which gas exchange takes place in the lung
Spirometry Measurement of lung volumes and capacities
Surfactant Fluid secreted by great alveolar cells in the lungs that reduces the surface tension of water
Tidal volume (TV) The amount of air moved in a normal breath (inspired or expired) at rest
Ventilation Airflow to the lungs
Ventilation-perfusion coupling The matching of airflow to blood flow in the lungs
Vital capacity (VC) The maximum amount of air that can be moved
Alimentary canal Or gastrointestinal. The gastrointestinal tract that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus
Bolus Chewed bite of food mixed with saliva
Caries An erosion through the enamel of a tooth into the dentin. Commonly called a cavity
Chemical digestion The breakdown of complex molecules to their building blocks so they can be absorbed
Chyme The liquefied contents of the stomach
Constipation **No per instructor** Condition of which defecation is difficult because too much water has been removed from the feces
Defecation **No per instructor** Process of removing feces from the body
Deglutition The process of swallowing
Diarrhea **No per instructor** Condition of a runny stool
Emulsify To break lipids into smaller droplets
Feces **No per instructor** The contents of the large intestine, composed of 75% water and 25% solids.
Flatus **No per instructor** Gas that is produced by bacteria and causes bloat, discomfort, and an unpleasant odor when released
Ingestion The intake of food into the mouth
Lacteals Small lymphatic vessels that are located in the villi of the small intestine and into which the products of lipid digestion are absorbed
Mass movement **No per instructor** The movement of feces from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon to the rectum; initiated by distension of the stomach
Mastication The process of chewing
Mechanical digestion The breakdown of large pieces of complex molecules to smaller pieces of complex molecules
Parasite An organism that lives on or in another organism (the host) and obtains its nourishment there
Peristalsis Wave-like contractions used to move materials along the digestive system
Segmentation **No per instructor** A stationary constriction of the smooth muscle of the small intestine in ring-like patterns to further churn chyme and mix in bile and digestive enzymes to finish chemical digestion
Cystitis An inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually caused by a bacterial infection
Dialysis A treatment for renal failure in which a machine filters out excess fluid, salt, and nitrogenous wastes in the blood
Diuretic A type of drug often prescribed for hypertensive patients to reduce their blood pressure by increasing urine production
Excretion The removal of metabolic wastes from the body
Fluid compartments **No per instructor** The 2 locations for water in the body - intracellular and extracellular
Glomerulonephritis An inflammation of the filtration membrane in the glomerulus to produce hormones
Hyperkalemia Condition in which the level of K+ (potassium) in the blood is too high
Hyponatremia Condition in which the level of Na+ (sodium) in the blood is too low
Metabolic acidosis **No per instructor** Condition in which there is decreased elimination of hydrogen ions by the kidneys or increased production of acidic substances through metabolism
Metabolic alkalosis **No per instructor** A relatively rare condition that can occur if there is prolonged vomiting, which results in the repeated loss of stomach acids
Metabolic waste Waste produced by cells
Metabolic water **No per instructor** Water formed in the cells through cellular respiration
Micturition The passing of urine out of the body
Nephron **No per instructor** The functional unit of a kidney; composed of a renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, and distal convoluted tubule that drains into a collecting duct
Nitrogenous wastes Wastes removed from the blood by the kidneys; include ammonia, urea, uric acid, and creatinine
Renal corpuscle **No per instructor** Part of a nephron; composed of a glomerulus and glomerular capsule
Renal tubule **No per instructor** Part of a nephron; composed of proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, and distal convoluted tubule
Respiratory acidosis **No per instructor** Condition in which the respiratory system cannot eliminate sufficient CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Respiratory alkalosis **No per instructor** Condition in which the respiratory system eliminates too much CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Secretion The third process of urine production in the nephron; removes remaining wastes and excess hydrogen ions form the blood
Blood-testis barrier (BTB) Barrier formed by sustentacular cells to isolate spermatocytes from the immune system in the male
Climacteric A period of life for men and women, usually beginning about age 50, in which reproductive hormone levels change. This period is typically called andropause in males and menopause in females
Crossing-over An event in meiosis in which chromatids break and exchange parts
Cryptorchidism A condition in which a male infant is born with undescended testis
Ejaculation The discharge of semen
Emission A stage in the male sexual response in which sperm are moved by peristaltic contractions through the ductus deferens to its ampulla and the prostate and seminal vesicles add their secretions to semen
Erection A stage in the male sexual response in which the erectile tissues of the penis become engorged with blood, causing the penis to become enlarged, rigid, and erect
Gamete A sex cell (a sperm or egg)
Infertility The inability to fertilize and egg
Meiosis Type of cell division that produces cells with half the normal number of chromosomes. (a two-division process, used to create sperm and eggs, that starts with a parent cell of 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
Pampiniform plexus A network of small veins surrounds the testicular artery
Puberty The first few years of adolescence that begins with the production of FSH & LH
Resolution A stage in the male sexual response in which the penis decreases in size and become flaccid again
Secondary sex characteristics Gender-specific characteristics developed at puberty due to estrogen in females and testosterone in males. (refer to ch 8, pg. 303, table 8.1 for females and more info)
Semen A fluid that is ejaculated from the penis during orgasm.
Smegma A waxy substance produced by the sebaceous glands of the male prepuce
Spermatic cord A composite of several structures, which include the cremaster muscle, pampiniform plexus, testicular artery, and ductus deferens
Spermatogenesis The first process in sperm productions; produces spermatids (each with 23 chromosomes) from a specialized stem cell (germ cell) with 46 chromosomes
Spermiogenesis The second process in sperm production; transforms spermatids to functional sperm
Zygote A fertilized egg
Afterbirth The placenta and its associated membranes delivered after the baby
Atresia Process in which oogonia and primary oocytes degenerate
Capacitation The acids of the vagina & other fluids of the female reproductive tract break down cholesterol of sperms' cell membrane & stimulate sperm to swim faster so after 10 hours, the sperm are able to release the enzymes of the acrosome cap to penetrate an egg
Colostrum A thin, watery fluid containing protein, lactose (milk sugar), and many antibodies but one-third less fat than breast milk
Crowning The appearance of the baby's head at the vaginal opening during birth
Effacement The thinning of the cervix in preparation for birth
Episiotomy An incision made in a female's perineum to widen the vaginal opening during birth
Folliculogenesis The changes in a follicle during oogenesis
Gestation The time from fertilization to birth
Labor Uterine contractions to bring about birth
Lactation Milk production
Mammography An x-ray examination of the breast used to detect breast cancer
Menopause Cessation of menstrual periods for at least a year
Menstrual cycle Part of the female sexual cycle of events that affects the uterine lining
Milk ejection reflex A reflex that is initiated by suckling on a breast and results in myoepithelial cells in the mammary lobules contracting to release milk to the lactiferous ducts in the breast
Oogenesis Egg production
Ovarian cycle Part of the female sexual cycle of events that occurs in the ovary
Ovulation The release of an egg from an ovary
Parturition The process of birth
Prolapse An effect of aging in the female reproductive system in which organs such as the urinary bladder and vagina drop out of position
Created by: teribere