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A&P1-8 Endocrine Sys

Ch 8: Endocrine System

TermDefinition
Androgens Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; responsible for male secondary sex characteristics & for sex drive in both genders
Autocrine The secretion of a hormone by the cells of the same tissue that it targets
Down-regulation A decrease in the number of receptors for a given hormone, causing the cell to become less sensitive to the hormone
Endocrine Refers to hormones that travel through the blood to get to their target tissue
Gland A structure on its own or groups of cells within an organ that function to produce hormones
Glucocorticoids Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that stimulate the breakdown of protein and fat to make glucose, suppress the immune system, and reduce inflammation
Gonads Ovaries in women, testes in men
Half-life The length of time it takes for one-half of a substance to be eliminated from the cardiovascular system
Hormone Chemical used in the endocrine system to carry messages
Mineralocorticoids Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that promote sodium and water reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidney to maintain blood volume and pressure
Pancreatic islets 1-2 million groups of endocrine cells in the pancreas that produce the hormones insulin and glucagon
Paracrine Term that refers to hormones that work on neighboring cells without having to go through the blood to get to the target tissue
Pheromone Term that refers to chemicals that cause a response outside the body, in another individual
Plasma protein Transport protein (made by the liver) that binds to a hormone in the blood to extend its half-life
Receptor Shape-specific binding site for a hormone
Second messenger Chemical created by the binding of a hormone in a receptor on the cell membrane; the second messenger carries the information to where it is needed in the cell to initiate the function of the hormone
Secondary sex characteristics Gender-specific characteristics developed at puberty due to estrogen in females and testosterone in males.
Target tissue Cells of a tissue that have receptors for a specific hormone
Thyroid hormone Collective term for the chemicals T3 and T4; their function is to increase metabolism in most tissues
Up-regulation An increase in the number of receptors for a given hormone, causing the cell to become more sensitive to the hormone
Created by: teribere