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A&P1-6 Nervous Sys

Ch 6: Nervous System

TermDefinition
Action potential Flow of electricity along an axon of a neuron in one direction – from the trigger zone to the synaptic knob
Afferent Sensory neurons carry receiving/incoming messages to the brain or spinal cord in the nervous system
Autonomic Nerve message sent to glands, cardiac muscle of the heart, or smooth muscle of hollow organs & blood vessels
Axon Portion of a neuron that carries electrical impulses along its length from the cell body to the synaptic knobs at the end of the neuron
Bipolar Neuron. Type of sensory neuron with one dendrite and one axon; found in the nasal cavity, retina, inner ear
Cerebrospinal fluid Fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord that is made by ependymal cells lining cavities in the brain called ventricles
Decremental Decrease with distance (effects of a local potential decrease with distance; therefore a local potential is also decremental)
Dendrite Portion of a neuron that receives information
Depolarize To change the charge across the cell membrane of a neuron by the flow of sodium into the cell
Efferent Motor neurons carry sending/outgoing messages away from the brain or spinal cord in the nervous system
Multipolar Neurons. The most common type of neuron in the brain and spinal cord; has multiple dendrites and an axon that may or may not have a collateral branch
Myelin A lipid-rich intermittent covering over the axons of some neurons. Gaps in the myelin sheath are called nodes of Ranvier
Neuroglia Cells that aid neurons in their functions (support cells for each neuron "nerve glue")
Parasympathetic Division of the autonomic nervous system that sends electrical messages to carry out functions for vegetative activities such as digestion, defecation, and urination
Reflex An involuntary, predictable, motor response to a stimulus without conscious thought
Repolarize To change the charge across the cell membrane of a neuron by the opening of potassium channels to allow the flow of potassium
Resting membrane potential A difference in charge across the cell membrane of a neuron created by the presence of many large negative ions inside the cell and many positive sodium ions outside the cell
Sympathetic Division of the autonomic nervous system that sends electrical messages to prepare the body for physical activity often referred to as fight or flight
Synapse Junction formed by the neuron’s synaptic knob with another cell (gland cell, muscle cell, or dendrite of another neuron)
Unipolar Neuron. Type of sensory neuron that appears to have one process that serves as dendrite and axon with the cell body pushed off to the side
Created by: teribere