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A&P1-5 Muscular Sys

Ch 5: Muscular System

TermDefinition
Acetylcholine (ACh) Neurotransmitter released to stimulate a contraction of skeletal muscle tissue. (must meet threshold amount for muscles to react; adding more ACh to the threshold will not give bigger response)
Aerobic respiration Type of cellular respiration requiring oxygen that results in enough energy to generate 36 ATP molecules from each glucose molecule & produces carbon dioxide & water. (for endurance; converts pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide & water) See slow-twitch fibers.
Anaerobic respiration Type of cellular respiration in the absence of O2 resulting in enough energy to generate 2 ATP molecules from each glucose molecule & produce lactic acid (bursts of energy; converts pyruvic acid to lactic acid as a waste product.) See fast-twitch fibers
Antagonist A muscle that has an opposite action (ex: raise hand from waist to mouth-biceps brachii contract (shorten) & triceps brachii relax (lengthen)
Extension The ability to be stretched (action that bends a part of the body posteriorly, such as straightening the arm at the elbow.)
Fascicle Group of muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium
Fatigue The inability of a muscle to fully respond to a nerve impulse.
Flexion Action that bends a part of the body anteriorly, such as flexing the elbow
Insertion The attachment of a muscle to a bone or structure that does move when the muscle contracts.
Isometric A type of contraction in which the length of the muscle remains constant while the tension in the muscle increases. (muscles stays the same)
Isotonic A type of contraction in which the tension in the muscle remains constant and motion is the result. (muscle shortens & lengthens. Ex: boxer moving his arm during the punch, the tension in his muscles remained constant and motion was the result.)
Lever A rigid object that can be used to lift something. Bones act as levers in lever systems that muscles use to move the body.
Motor unit A single nerve cell and all the muscle cells it stimulates
Muscle twitch The contraction of one muscle cell due to one nerve impulse
Origin The attachment of a muscle to a bone or structure that does not move when the muscle contracts
Recruitment The process of getting more and more motor units involved in a contraction to create a larger motion. (ex: there is rapid recruitment in a boxer’s punch)
Sarcomere A section of a myofibril extending from one Z line to the next
Sliding filament theory An explanation of muscle contraction that involves thick myofilaments grabbing thin myofilaments and pulling them toward the center of the sarcomere
Synergists Muscles that have the same action (ex: raise hand from waist to mouth-biceps brachii contract (shorten) & triceps brachii relax (lengthen)
Tetany A sustained contraction brought about by a high frequency of nerve impulses. (ex: like holding a pencil, muscles can’t enter relaxation phase or you’ll drop the pencil. (a sustained contraction brought about by a high frequency of nerve impulses.)
Created by: teribere