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renal A&P

Study guide

what are the differences b/w the R & L kidney? R kidney is slightly lower than the L kidney to accommodate for the liver
what does the urine normally contain? nitrogenous waste(urea, uric acid & creatinine) electrolytes (sodium chloride , sulfates & phosphates), pigment ,urochome(bilirubin & bile pigments)
how is urine expelled from the body? from the kidneys -> 2 ureters -> bladder -> urethra
what muscles are involved in expelling urine? 2 sphincters--involuntary internal urethral sphincter formed by the continuation of the bladders smooth muscle) & voluntary external sphincter( formed by the muscle of the pelvic floor)
where is urine formed? internal renal medulla
how does urine get flitered? glomerulus capillaires & vessels within the glomerular
what are all the parts of nephron? glomerular capsule ,glomerulus , renal tubule , proximal tubule ,nephron loop ,descending & ascending limbs & distal tubule , afferent & efferent arterioles 7 peritubulur capillaires
what is the normal daily output? 1500ml
what does the JG apparatus excrete? renin to increase BP
where are the parts of the renal system locate within the body?
excretion of urine is through urethra
the urinary system regulate_____under direction of certain hormones it controls blood & interstitial fluids which directly affects____ blood volume /BP
the urinary system is comprised of the following structures kidneys , ureters ,bladder & urethra
the kidneys _______blood process_______into tubular fluid then urine filter/filtrate
the____transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder via___ ureters/peristalsis
the urinary bladder is the resivoir for the urine until ______occurs miturition
the transport of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body urethra
the kidneys are located in retroperitoneal on the _____ _____ wall posterior abdonminal
the kidneys have a concave medial border ____where the vessels , & ureter connect w/kidneys hilum
the hilum is continuous w/an internal space called renal sinus
the kidney is divided into an outer ___ ___ & an inner ___ ____ renal cortex/renal medulla
the medulla of the kidney looks ___ then the cortex darker
the apex(tip) of the renal pyramid is called renal papilla
sm organs that sit in the retroperitoneal at about the level of the pelvis these organs filter the blood by removing acids, toxins ,& urea out of the blood stream kidneys
the kidneys consist of two distinct regions renal parenchyma & renal pelvis
the renal parenchyma is divided into the cortex & medulla
what vessels supplies blood to the renal artery abd. aorta
what vessel recieves blood from the renal vien inferior vena cava
what are the organs of the urinary system two kidneys , two ureters ,bladder & urethra
what are some systems other then the urinary system that eliminates waste digestive ,respiratory & integumentary systems
what is the outer region of the kidney called renal cortex
what is the inner region of the kidney renal medulla
the kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space
where is the retroperitoneal space posterior to the peritoneum
what vessels supplies blood to the kidneys renal artery
what vessel drains blood from the kidneys renal vein
what are the functional units of the kidneys nephron
what name is given to the coil of capillaries in the glomerular (bowmans )capsule glomerulus
which of the two convoluted tubules arises closer to the glomerular capsule proximal tubule
which convoluted tubule is farther away from the glomerular capsule distal tubule
what is glomerular filtration movement of materials under pressure from the blood into the nephrons glomerular capsule
what are the 4 processes involved in the formation of urine glomerular filtration , tubular reabsorption ,tubular secretion & countercurrent mechanism for concentrating urine
what substances is produced by the JG appartus renin when BP drops
under what condition is renin produced low sodium in the filtrate leaving the nephron
what gland does the urethra pass through in the male prostate gland
what is the name of the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder ureters
what openings form the bladder trigones ureters & urethra
what is the name of the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside urethra
what are some normal constitutes of urine nitrogen waste, electrolytes & pigment
what are some avenues through which water is lost skin , lungs ,kidneys & intestines
in what way is most water lost in a day urine
what are two main compartments into which body fluids are grouped intracellular & extracellular fluid
where is the control center for sense of thirst located hypothalmus
what ions are the highest in extracellular fluids sodium & chloride
what ions are the highest in intracellular potassium & phosphate
what is the main cation in the extracellular & intracellular fluid ex:sodium & in:potassium
what is the main anion in extracellular fluid chloride
what are some mechanisms for regulating electrolytes in the body fluids some electrolytes are lost through feces & sweat ,kidneys have the main job of balancing electrolytes , several hormones aldosterone,ADH,ANP, PTH & vit-d
what are the 3 mechanism for maintaining the acid base balance of body fluids buffer systems , respiration & kidney functions
removal & elimination of unwanted substances from the blood excretion
reservoir that receives & stores urine brought to it by 2 ureters bladder
nitrogenous waste product excreted in the urine;end product of protein metabolism urea
when the kidneys do not get enough O2 they produce erythropotetin
on the medial border there is a notch where the renal artery , renal vein & ureters connect w/ the kidneys hilum
a number of cone shaped structures called renal pyramids
tips of the renal pyramids renal pelvis
funnel shaped basin that forms the upper ureter renal pelvis
cup like extension of the renal pelvis surrounded by the tips of the pyramids & collect urine calyx
each nephron begins with a hollow shaped bulb known as glomerular capsule
then the next structure gets its name from the cluster of capillaries it contains glomerulus
the combined unit of the____ &_____is the nephron's _____device glomerulus & glomerular capsule /filtering
the remainder of the nephron is essentially a tiny coiled tube renal tubule or the proximal convoluted tubule
the renal tubule then uncoils to form a hairpin shaped segment nephron loop or loop of henle
the first part of the loop of henle which carries fluid toward the medulla descending limb
carries fluid away from the medulla ascending limb
continuing from the ascending limb the tubule coils once again into the distal tubule or distal convoluted tubule
each renal tubule empties into collecting duct
each kidney contains about _____nephrons 1 mill
a sm blood vessel that supplies the glomerulus w/blood afferent arterioles
sm vessel that carries blood away from the glomerulus efferent arterioles
capillary network that surrounds the renal tubule peritubular capillaries
proximal & distal tubules of the nephron are within the renal cortex
nephron loop & collecting ducts extend into the medulla
the process of urine begins in glomerulus
water reasorption from the collecting duct is influenced by ADH
makes the walls of the collecting duct more permeable to water ADH
internal mechanism for maintaining adequate filtration pressure JG apperatus
lies at the point where the DCT contacts the afferent arteriols JG Apperatus
specific gravity H2O=1.000,diluted urine 1.002,concentrated urine 1.040
Created by: carolyne33



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