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Ch. 1: General EH

General Environmental Health

What is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children under 5 years of age? Haemophilus influenza type B
What are microscopic plants having round, rodlike, spiral, or filamentous single-celled or noncellular bodies often aggregated into colonies or motile by means of flagella? Bacteria
Whose sizes average 0.5-1 um in diameter by 4-20 um in length? Bacteria
What is vibrios an example of? Bacteria
What is spirochetes an example of? Bacteria
What are parasitic organisms that pass through filters that retain bacteria and can only be seen with an electron microscope? Viruses
What parasitic organisms can grow and multiply only inside living cells but can survive outside the host? Viruses
Are all viruses pathogenic? No
How is giardiasis usually transmitted to others? Person-to-person transfer of cysts from the feces of the infected person
Term: epidemic Definition: the occurrence in a community or region of an illness (or an outbreak) clearly in excess of expectancy.
Term: endemic Definition: growing or existing diseases or infectious agents in a certain place or region.
Term: pandemic Definition: disease or infectious agent occurring over a wide geographic area and affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the population.
Term: incidence Definition: the number of times disease or illness happens or develops; the rate at which disease or illness occurs.
Term: prevalence Definition: the degree to which something is prevalent; especially the percentage of a population that is affected with a particular disease at a given time.
Term: morbidity Definition: the relative incidence of disease; the rate of sickness.
Term: mortality Definition: a) the number of deaths in a given time or place. b) the proportion of deaths to population. c) the number lost or the rate of loss or failure
Term: mode/method of transmission Definition: the movement or the transmission of pathogens from a reservoir to a susceptible host.
Term: host Definition: an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal (an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm) organism lives.
Term: reservoir Definition: serves as a source of infection and potential reinfection of humans and as a means of sustaining a parasite when it is not infecting humans.
Term: carrier Definition: a person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection.
Term: agent Definition: a microorganism (or a toxin derived from it) which causes disease in man, plants or animals or which causes the deterioration of material.
Term: chronic disease Definition: illness that is prolonged in duration, does not often resolve spontaneously, and is rarely cured completely.
Term: acute disease Definition: a disease with a rapid onset and/or a short course.
Term: active immunity Definition: the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.
Term: passive immunity Definition: the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.
Term: lag phase Definition: the period when the bacteria are adjusting to the environment.
Term: growth phase Definition: the growth of bacterial cells, which increase by a multiplicative factor per unit of time.
Term: demographic data Definition: statistical data of a population.
Term: frequency Definition: the rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample.
Term: physical factors Definition: features of the environment that affects organism function and population growth rates, but is not consumed or depleted.
Term: behavior modification Definition: the alteration of behavioral patterns through the use of such learning techniques as biofeedback and positive or negative reinforcement.
Term: epidemiology Definition: the study of the occurrence, frequency, and distribution of disease (communicable and noncommunicable) in selected human populations, leading to the discovery of the cause and an informed basis for preventative action.
Types of carrier states 1. Animal: harbors a disease, but does not show symptoms. 2. Heterozygote: carrier of recessive gene. 3. Edible material
Term: indirect transmission Definition: occurs when there is no direct human-to-human contact. Contact occurs from a reservoir to contaminated surfaces or objects, or to vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rodents or dogs.
Goals of epidemiology 1. Maintenance/promotion of healthy state. 2. Preventive: inhibit the transition from healthy to unhealthy by avoiding/minimizing exposure to risk factors. 3. Curative: increase recovery from unhealthy to the healthy state, thus minimizing mortalities.
Epidemiological studies Disease etiology, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance and screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
Descriptive study Information is collected without changing the environment (nothing is manipulated); looks at disease distribution as classified by person, place, and time for both acute and chronic disease prevention.
Analytic study Relies on comparisons between groups to determine the role of various risk factors in causing the problem.
Portal of entry A portal of entry is the site through which micro-organisms enter the susceptible host and cause disease/infection.
Ports of entry Mucous membranes, the skin, the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts.
Portal of exit Site from where micro-organisms leave the host to enter another host and cause disease/infection.
Ports of exit Upper respiratory tract (saliva, sneezing, coughing) Gastrointestinal tract (feces, vomit) Blood, in utero Urogenital tract (semen,vaginal secretions, urine) Skin and mucous membranes (discharges from infected skin lesions and infected wounds)
Direct transmission Occurs when an infected person touches or exchanges body fluids with someone else.
Types of direct transmission Person-to-person or droplet spread
Types of indirect transmission Airborne, contaminated objects/surfaces, insect bites (vector-borne), food- or waterborne, animal- or environmental reservoirs.
Susceptible host A member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease.
Leukocytes The cells of the immune system that are involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Strategic planning Identifies an organization's strengths and weaknesses and recommends actions necessary to reach its most desirable future (its vision).
Mission statement The formalized purpose and objectives of an organization, including the legal mandate and the organization's responsibility in resolving specific issues.
Elements of strategic planning Values, goals, objectives, strategies, plan evaluation, and other related principles.
Malfeasance The doing of an act that is wrongful and that is known to be wholly unauthorized by the official.
Misfeasance The doing of an authorized act in an unauthorized manner.
Nonfeasance The failure to perform an official duty without sufficient excuse.
Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs) The measure of the amount of light scattered by particles suspended in a water test sample.
Schistosomiasis The disease for which Swimmer's Itch is the common name.
Spread of communicable and noninfectious diseases Source-->mode of transmission-->susceptibility
Source Agent factors (physical, chemical, biological) such as food, parasites, toxic plants, noise, radiation, toxic substances.
Mode of Transmission Contributing factors (environmental factors) such as environmental pollutants, personal behavior, level of hygiene, work, travel, climate.
Susceptibility (Host factors) all animals or susceptibles, resulting in acute, chronic, or delayed effects; depending on the portal of entry, dose, and virulence or toxicity of the agent; natural and acquired resistance of host, and lifestyle.
Principle of Multiple Barriers Simultaneously erect barriers aimed at all 3 links in the spread of communicable and noninfectious disease chain where possible.
Created by: drchang