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Praxis 2 PLT K-6

Study Guide for Praxis

Jerome Bruner - (a psychologist who focused much of his research on the cognitive development of children and how it relates to education) Belief: learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge; discovery learning & scaffolding
Bruner's 3 Modes of Representation 1. Inactive representation (action-based) 2. Iconic representation (image-based) 3. Symbolic representation (language-based)
Mode 1: Inactive (action-based) EX: algebra tiles, paper, coins, etc. - anything tangible. AKA concrete stage; involves a tangible hands-on method of learning. Bruner believed that "learning begins with an action - touching, feeling, and manipulating." In math, manipulatives are the concrete objects with which the actions are performed.
Mode 2: Iconic(image-based) EX: draw images of the objects on paper or to picture them in one's head. Other ways could be through the use of shapes, diagrams, and graphs AKA pictoral stage; involves images or other visuals to represent the concrete situation enacted in the first stage.
Mode 3: Symbolic (language-based) EX: a number is a symbol, x,y,x AND +, -, / AKA abstract stage;takes the images from the 2nd stage & represents them using words & symbols. The use of words and symbols "allows student to organize info in the mind by relating concepts together."
Bruner's Theory Gives teachers the ability to engage all students in the learning process regardless of their cognitive level of the concept at the moment.
John Dewey (cooperative learning, project-based learning) - Education must engage with & enlarge experience - Exploration of think & reflection & the associated role of educators - Concern with interaction & environment for learning - Passion for democracy so that all may share common life
Cooperative Learning (Dewey) An educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences.
Lev Vygotsky 3 Major Themes 1. Social interaction 2. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) 3. Zone of Proximal Development
Social Interaction (Vygotsky) -social learning anticipates development -young children are curious & actively involved in their own learning & the discovery & development of new understandings.
The More Knowledgeable Other (Vygotsky) MKO refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. EX: teachers, other adults, advanced students, or technology
Zone of Proximal Development Relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently & what a child can achieve with guidance & encouragemnet from a skilled partner. EX: reading a book with a child
Importance of Culture (Vygotsky) -humans use of tools & symbols to learn -culture dictates what we learn & how we learn it -high & lower mental functions - elementary (or lower) functions gradually transform to higher mental functions through culture
Part 1: How does Vygotsky's theory differ from Piaget's theories? 1. Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development -- this contradicts Piaget's view of universal stages & content of development (Vygotsky does not refer to stages like Piaget does).
Part 2: How does Vygotsky's theory differ from Piaget's theories? 2.Vygotsky places considerable more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development (Piaget is criticized for underestimating this). 3. Vygotsky places more emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development (agian, Piaget is crit
Part 3: How does Vygotsky's theory differ from Piaget's theories? 4: According to Piaget, language depends on thought for its development (i.e. thought comes before language). For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life, merging at around three years of age, producing ver
3 Stages in the Development of Speech (Vygotsky) 1. Social Speech (external speech) 2. Egocentric Speech 3. Inner Speech
Stage 1 - Social Speech (external speech) In this stage, a child uses speech to control the behavior of others. A child uses speech to express simple thoughts & emotions such as crying, laughter, & shouting.
Stage 2 - Egocentric Speech In this stage, children (3-7 years olf) often talk to themselves to learn. They think out loud in an attempt to guide their own behavior.
Stage 3 - Inner Speech A soundless speech used by older children & adults. aka...thinking in their head
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Howard Gardner 8 Multiple Intelligences
8 Multiple Intelligences (Gardner) 1.Linguistic - using words in learning 2.Logical/Mathematical - use #'s or logic in learning 3.Spatial - use pictures in learning 4.Bodily/Kinesthetic - use movement or physical experience 5.Musical - use music
8 Multiple Intelligences (Gardner) (CONT...) 6.Interpersonal - use of self-reflection 7.Intrapersonal - use of social experience 8.Naturalist - use an experience in a natural world
5 Major Differences in Cognitive Development Bruner VS Piaget. Bruner believes.... 1.development is a continuous process not a series of stages. 2.the development of language is a cause not a consequence of cogitive development. 3.You can "speed up" cognitive development. You dont have to wait for the child to be ready.
5 Major Differences in Cognitive Development Bruner VS Piaget. Bruner believes.... (CONT...) 4.The involvement of adults & more knowledgeable peers makes a big difference. 5. Symbolic though does NOT replace earlier Modes of Representation.
Albert Bandura Observational Learning, or modeling - a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others.
4 Stepgs in the Modeling Process (Bandura) 1.Attention 2.Retention 3.Reproduction 4.Motivation
Bobo Doll Study (Bandura) 24 Children watched an adult model aggressive behavior towards a blow up toy called a bobo doll. Another 24 children were exposed to a non-aggressive model and the final 24 child were used as a control group and not exposed to any model at all.
Bandura says that humans are able to control their behavior through a process known as self regulation. This process involves 3 steps: 1.self-observation: humans look at themselves and their behavior and keep track of their actions 2.Judgement: We compare what we see with a standard 3.Self-response: Uses self-rewards & self-punishments
B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning: Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).
Behavior Modification (Skinner) A therapy technique based on Skinner’s work; Extinguish an undesirable behavior (by removing the reinforcer) and replace it with a desirable behavior by reinforcement.
Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1.The sensorimoter stage 2.The pre-operational stage 3.The concrete operational stage 4.The formal operations stage
Sensorimotor Stage - birth-2 years old - uses senses & motor abilities to understand the world
Pre-Operational Stage - 2-7 years old - symbols, creative play, egocentric, center on on aspect of any problem or communication at a time
Concrete Operational Stage - 7-11 years old - Operations refers to logical operations we use when solving problems; conservation refers to the idea that a quanity remains the same despite changes in apperance; decentering; classification & seriation (putting things in order)
Formal Operations Stage - 12 years + = hypothetical thinking (logical problems, and using them in the abstract, rather than the concrete)
Genetic Epistemology (Piaget) The study of the development of knowledge.
Schemas (Piaget) skills to explore the environment to gain knowledge
Assimilation VS Accomodation (Piaget) 2 complementary processes of Adaptation described by Piaget, through which awareness of the outside world is internalised.
Assimilation assimilating a new object into an old schema
Accomodation accomodating an old schema to a new object
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Part 1) 1.Physiological Needs (EX: food, water, shelter, oxygen, sex, homeostasis,excretion) 2.Safety Needs (EX: security of body, employment, health, etc..) 3.Love/Beloningness Needs (EX: friendship, family, sexual intimacy)
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Part 2) 4.Esteem Needs (EX:confidence, achievemnt, self-esteem, respect of/by others) 5.Self-Actualization (EX:morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts)
Constructivism Knowledge is constructed by the individual through his interactions with his environment.
Transfer A phenomnon in which something that was previously learned facilitates (positive transfer) or hinders (negative transfer) current learning; the influence of previously learned info on new situations or tasks.
Metacognition a person thinks about their own learning
3 Basic Elements of Metacognition 1.Developing a plan of action 2.Maintaining/monitoring the plan 3.Evaluating the plan "learning how to learn"
Scaffolding A variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process.
Intrinsic Motivation Refers to motivation to engage in an activity for its own sake. People who are intrinsically motivated to work on tasks because they find them enjoyable. EX:playing a game because you find it exciting
Extrinsic Motivation Occurs when we are motivated to perform a behavior or engage in an activity in order to earn a reward or avoid a punishment...or a means to an end. EX: studying because you want a good grade
Readiness Appropriate time for learning
Bloom's Taxonomy Created in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning).
6 Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy 1.Knowledge 2.Comprhension 3.Application 4.Analysis 5.Synthesis 6.Evaluation
Carol Gilligan Stages of ethical care relating to women
Kohlberg's 6 Stages of Moral Development [1] Level 1:Pre-Conventional Morality -Stage 1:Obedience & Punishment -Stage 2:Individualism, Instrumentalism, & Exchange Level 2:Conventional Morality -Stage 3:Interpersonal Relationships -Stage 4:Law & Order
Kohlberg's 6 Stages of Moral Development [2] Level 3:Post-Conventional Morality -Stage 5: Social Contract -Stage 6:Principle Conscience
Level 1:Pre-Conventional Morality (Kohlberg) [1] Stage 1:Obedience & Punishment -generally found at the elementary school level. People behave according to socially acceptable norms because they are told to do so by some authority figure (EX: parent or teacher).
Level 1:Pre-Conventional Morality (Kohlberg) [2] Stage 2:Individualism, Instrumentalism, & Exchange -right behavior means acting in one's own best interests.
Level 2:Conventional Morality Stage 3:Interpersonal Relationships -aka "good boy/girl"- characterized by an attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others. Stage 4:Law & Order -oriented to abiding the law & responding to the obligations of duty.
Level 3:Post-Conventional Morality Stage 5: Social Contract -understanding of social mutuality & a genuine interest in the welfare of others. Stage 6:Principle Conscience -based on respect for universal principles & the demands of indicidual conscience
Nitza Hidalgo's 3 Levels of Culture 1.Concrete 2.Behavioral 3.Symbolic
The Concrete (Hidalgo) Most visible and tangible level of culture, and includes the most surface-level dimensions such as clothes, music, food, games, etc. These aspects of culture are often those that provide the focus for multicultural "festivals" or "celebrations."
The Behavioral (Hidalgo) Clarifies how we define our social roles, the language we speak, and our approaches to nonverbal communication. EX: language, gender roles, family structure, political affiliation, and other items that situation us organizationally in society.
The Symbolic (Hidalgo) This level of culture includes our values and beliefs. It can be abstract, but it is most often the key to how individuals define themselves. It includes values systems, customs, spirituality, religion, worldview, beliefs, mores, etc.
Erik Ericson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development 1.Oral-Sensory 2.Muscular-Anal 3.Locomotor 4.Latency 5.Adolescence 6.Young Adulthood 7.Middle Adulthood 8.Maturity
1.Oral-Sensory Stage -birth-12-18 months -trust VS mistrust -important event: feeding -The infant must form a first loving, trustingrelationship with the caregiver, or develop a sense of mistrust
2.Muscular-Anal Stage -18 months - 3years -Autonomy vs.Shame/Doubt -important event: toilet training -The child's energies are directed toward the development of physical skills,including walking, grasping, and rectal sphincter control.
3.Locomotor Stage - 3-6 years -Initiative VS Guilt -important event: independence -The child continues to become more assertive and to take moreinitiative, but may be too forceful, leading to guilt feelings.
4.Latency Stage -6-12 years -Industry VS Inferiority -important event: school -The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority,failure and incompetence.
5.Adolescence -12-18 years -Identiy VS Role Confusion -important event:peer relationships -The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sexroles, politics, and religion.
6.Young Adulthood -19-40 years -INtimacy VS Isolation -important event:love relationships -The young adult must develop intimate relationships or sufferfeelings of isolation.
7.Middle Adulthood -35-55 years -Generativity VS Self-Absorbtion -important event:parenting -Eachadult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation.
8.Maturity -55-death -Ego-Integrity VS Despair -Reflection on & acceptance of one's life -The culmination is a sense ofoneself as one is and of feeling fulfilled.
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