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A&P Chapters 12-13

Nervous tissue, neurophysiology, spinal cord, spinal nerves and spinal reflexes

TermDefinition
Nervous system includes all neural tissue in the body
Two kinds of cells in neural tissue neurons, neuroglia
Neuron a cell that sends and receives signals; basic functional unit of the nervous system
Neuroglia cells that support and protect neurons
Organs of the nervous system brain, spinal cord, sensory receptors of sense organs, nerves
Anatomical divisions of the nervous system central (CNS), peripheral (PNS)
Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord; contains neural tissue, connective tissue, and blood vessels
Functions of the CNS process and coordinate: sensory data from inside and outside body, motor commands, higher brain functions
Higher brain functions intelligence, memory, learning, emotion
Peripheral nervous system includes all neural tissue outside the CNS
Functions of the PNS deliver sensory information to CNS, carry motor commands to peripheral tissues and systems
Nerves bundles of axons with connective tissue and blood vessels that carry sensory information and motor commands in the PNS
Cranial nerves nerves that connect to the brain
Spinal nerves nerves that connect to the spinal cord
Functional divisions of the PNS afferent, efferent
Afferent PNS carries sensory information from PNS receptors to CNS
Efferent PNS carries motor commands from CNS to muscles and glands innervated by PNS
Receptors of afferent PNS composed of neurons and specialized cells; detect changes or respond to stimuli; also found in special sensory organs
Effectors of afferent PNS cells and organs that respond to efferent PNS signals
Somatic nervous system part of the efferent PNS that controls both voluntary and involuntary skeletal muscle contractions
Autonomic nervous system controls subconscious actions, such as contractions of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, glandular secretions; made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Sympathetic nervous system division of the ANS that has a stimulating effect (fight or flight)
Parasympathetic nervous system division of the ANS that has a relaxing effect (rest and digest)
Major organelles of the neuron cell body Large nucleus/nucleolus, perikaryon (cytoplasm), mitochondria, RER and ribosomes, cytoskeleton, Nissl bodies, dendrites, axon
Components of the neuron cytoskeleton neurofilaments, neurotubules, neurofibrils
Neurofibril bundle of neurofilaments that provides support for the dendrites and axons
Nissl body dense area of RER and ribosomes that makes neural tissue appear gray
Dendrite highly branched protrusion of neuron
Dendritic spines many fine processes branching off a dendrite that receive information from other neurons; represent 80-90% of neuron surface area
Created by: ekolmus