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Breaking down of food into molecules that are sm enough to enter cells Digestion
Passage of sm particles of food molecules through the cells lining the stomach & intestines into the lymph Absorbtion
medical specialty that deals w/structure, function,DX & Tx of diseases of the stomach & intestines Gastoenterology
Continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus Gastrointestinal tract (GI tract)
Primary GI Tract organs Mouth,pharynx,esophagus, stomach ,sm intestine & lg intestine
Accessory GI tract organs teeth,tongue,salivary glands,liver,gallbladder & pancreas
How many primary & accessory GI tract organs are there 6 of each
what do the primary GI tract organs do that the accessory organs do not they can touch the contents
purpose of the accessory GI organs provide secretions
steps for the digestive system process ingestion,secretion,mixing & propulsion digestion,absorption & defecation
the taking in of food or liquid through the mouth ingestion
in order to gain sustenance from your food you must first absorb it
4 layers of the GI tract Mucosa, Submucosa, muscularis & peritoneum
innermost layer of the GI tract Mucosa
Surrounds the digestive tract Immune system
connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis submucosa
muscle that allows for voluntary control of swallowing & defecation & where are they located Skeletal muscle: mouth, pharnynx & upper esophagus-- External anal sphincter in the muscularis layer of the GI tract
outermost layer of the GI tract peritoneum
two parts of the peritoneum ? what do they do? VIseral peritoneum & parietal peritoneum: viseral covers the organs in the abd.cavity & secrets slippery watery fluid allowing the tract to glide easily against other organs -> parietal covers the abd. cavity
what % of the muscularis is made up of smooth muscle 95%
how much is involuntary 95%
thick sheet of fatty tissue that drapes over the transverse colon & SM intestine Greater omentum
Stops food from going into the nasal cavity uvula
the ingual frenulum is located under the tongue
functions of the cheeks & tongue keep the food b/w the teeth
uvula is located where soft palette
upper surfaces and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae,some of which contains taste buds
parotid, submandibular & sublingual glands Salivary glands
salivary amylase breaks down carbs ,carbs digest the quickest
what enzyme kills bacteria in the salivary glands lysozyme
where do you find salivary amylase salivary glands
after the sm intestine there are nomore enzymes only bacteria
there is bacteria instead of enzymes in the lg intestine
intestinal glands are found in the sm intestine not in the lg
there are no villi or permanent circular folds in the mucosa of the lg intestine
S-shape in the colon Sigmoid colon
function of the lg intestine complete the process of absorption, produces vitamins responsible for formation of feces & expels the feces from the body
parts of the colon ascending,transverse, descending, sigmoid & ends at the rectum
structures of the lg intestine in the order in which food travels cecum, colon, rectal & anal canal
what digest the majority of ions Sm intestine
normal pathway pf amino acids sm intestine, liver then general circulation
half of amino acids come from food & half come from proteins in the digestive juices & dead cells
amino acids are usually absorbed in the Jejunum & doudenum
Active transport is transporting low to high solute concentration
90% of absorption takes place sm intestine
two types of movement in mechanical digestion segmentation first movement then perstalsis
90-120 mins 2nd mechanical digestion perstalsis
intestinal juice is a watery,_______fluid w/ph of_________ yellow;7.6 slightly alkaline
muscularis layer contains longitudinal outer layer & circular inner layer
duodenum is located At submucosa of the sm intestine
what structure of the duodenum secrets alkaline mucus brunners gland
submucosa in the sm intestine neutralizies ______ in the chyme gastric acid
three cells used in absorption? absorptive,goblet & endocrine cells
microville appear on the top of absorptive cells & help to increase absorption
what is a lacteal lymphatic capillary
what cells physically bring food into the body absorptive cells
ileum joins the cecum at the ileocecal sphincter
duodenum means 12`
sm intestine has 3 portions duodenum,jejunum & ileum
groove b/w hepatocyles canaliculi
how often do we make bile 24hrs a day
what do kupffers cells do destroy worn out blood cells bacteria & other foreign matter
food must go to the ____ first before it is allowed into general circulation via the _____ Liver; hepatic portal system
functions of the liver carbohydrate & lipid metabolism, protein, processing of drugs and hormones, excretion of bilirubin,storage of vitamins & minerals & activation of vit-D
the princple bile pigment bilirubin (green)
bile salts in the liver are what emulsifers
what do we do with bile when we are not digesting? sphincter closes & bile backs up into the gallbladder where it is held until needed
what are kupffer cells ? phagocytes inside sinusoids in the liver
what does the liver have inside of the capillaries sinusoids, tiny hollow spaces
liver cells hepatocytes
lobules of the liver consist of specialized epithelial cells hepatocytes
lobes of the liver are divided into lobules
sits behind the stomach pancreas
under the liver anterior side is the gallbladder
liver is located mostly on the______ of the body right side ; has 2 lobes
cholecystokinin stimulates pancreatic juices rich in digestive enzymes
proteins begin to digest in the stomach
second largest organ liver
enzymes that exist in the pancreatic juices pancreatic amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase,pancreatic lipase ,ribonuclase &deoxyribonuclase
only part of the GI tract equipped to handle acid stomach
pancreatic juices need to be alkaline bc it needs to inactivate that highly acidic enzyme pepsin which is coming from the stomach
lots of sodium bicarbonate, mostly water,some salts & emzymes pancreatic juice
pancreatic inslets are they endocrine or exocrine endocrine they secret glucagon & insulin
remaining 1% of tissue in the pancreas is organized into clusters called pancreatic inslets
the acini secret a mixture of fluid & _____ called __________ digestive enzymes :pancreatic juice
99% of pancreatic tissue is exocrine which is the Acini
sm clusters of glandular epithelial cells int the pancreas Acini
all secretions of the pancreas gets dumped into duodenum
pancreatic duct joins another duct called common bile duct
accessory organs for digestion pancreas, gallbladder &liver
pepsin accounts for 20 % of protein digestion
enzymes that digest protein pepsin
hormone that decreases gastric secretions in the stomach secretin
hormone that stimulates your stomach gastrin
what does gastrin do? increases production of gastric juices
three chief functions of the digestive system digestion, absorption & elimination
continuous passageway beginning at the mouth & terminating at the anus Digestive tract
necessary for digestive process but not part of the digestive tract accessory organs
large membrane thst lines the abdominoplevic cavity pertoneum
a thin moist tissue composed of simple squamous epithelium & areolar connective tissue serous membrane(serosa)
main portion, located in abd. cavity & extending into the pelvic cavity greater peritoneal cavity
formed by a smaller extension of these membranes dorsal to the stomach & liver to the posterior attachment of the diaphram lesser peritoneal cavity
section of the peritoneum that extend from the colon to the posterior abd. wall mesocolon
extends from the lower border of the stomach into the pelvic cavity then loops back up to the transverse colon greater omentum
sm membrane extends b/w the stomach & liver lesser omentum
digestive tract is sometimes called ____meaning food alimentary tract
process of chewing mastication
saliva lubricates the food & has a digestive enzyme called ________ which begins __________ salivary amylase; starch digestion
food moves toward the throat to be swallowed in a process called deglutition
children b/w 2-yrs has _____teeth 20
baby teeth ; word meaning falling out at a certain time decidous
complete set of adult permanent teeth 32
main substance of a tooth , calcified substances harder then bone dentin
teeth are covered w/ the hardest substance in the body enamel
rigid connective tissue that helps hold the teeth in place cementum
the esophagus travels through an opening in the diaphram called esophageal hiatus
expanded J-shaped organ in the superior left region of the abd. cavity stomach
layer that aides in grinding food & mixing it w/digestive juices inner obilque
left facing arch of the stomach greater curvature
right surface of the stomach forms the lesser curvature
superior rounded portion under the Left sid of the diaphragm is the stomachs fundus
two sphincters that separates the stomach from the organs above & below lower esophageal sphincter & pyloric sphincter
b/w the esophagus & stomach lower esophageal sphincter
b/w the distal or far end of the stomach & the sm intestine pyloric sphincter
functions of the stomach storage pouch,digestive organ & churn
when the stomach is empty the lining forms many folds and these fold disappear as the stomach expands rugae
a strong acid that unwinds proteins to prepare for digestion & also destroys foreign organisms hydrocholric acid (HCI)
protein digesting enzyme produces in an inactive form called pepsinogen which is activated when in contact w/HCI pepsin
highly acidic, semi-liquid mixture of gastric juices & food that leaves the stomach to enter the sm intestine Chyme
longest part of the digestive tract after death approx. 20 ft long in life approx. 10 ft long sm intestine
begins in the lower right region of the abd. lg intestine
outer longitudinal muscle fibers in the lg intestinal wall forms 3 separate surface bands that draw up the organs wall to give it it's distinctive puckered appearance tenia coli
subdivision of the lg intestine the first part of the sm pouch cecum
b/w the cecum & the ileum of the sm intestine prevents food from traveling backwards into the sm intestine ileucecal valve
attached to the cecum in the sm blind tubing containing lymphoid tissue vermiform appendix (appendix)
second portion extends superiorly along the right side of the abd. toward the liver ascending colon
bends near the liver at the right colic hepatic flexure & extends across the abd. transveres colon
bends again sharply at the left colic hepatic flexure & extends inferiorly on the left side of the abd. into the pelvis descending colon
temporary storage area for indigestible or nonabsorbent food residue rectum
narrow terminal portion of the lg intestine which leads to the outside of the body--- which leads to an opening called anal canal -- anus
deliver their secretions into the mouth salivary glands
release secretions into the duodenum liver,pancreas & gallbladder
saliva is manufacture in three pairs of glands parotid, submandibular & sublingual glands
largest of the glands located inferior & anterior to the ear parotid gland
gland locacted near the body of the lower jaw submandibular
glands are under the tongue sublingual
why do you feel the effects of alcohol & aspirin so quickly? they can permeate your stomach & do not have to go through the sm intstine
the epithelial cells in the stomach are almost impermeable, what can get through water,ions , aspirin & alcohol
prescence of food in the stomach does what to the PH increases it
what is different in the muscularis layer of the stomach the third layer when the others only have a viseral & parietal layers
what is the function of HCI kills microbes in food ,converts pepsiongen into pepsin , maintains PH in the stomach around 2-3 ( keeps it acidic to kill microbes) helps absorb vit-B12 bc of the instrinsic factor
J - shape curve in the stomach pylorus
where the diaphragm pushes & pulls w/inspiration & mixes food w/HCI mixing chamber
the way we propel food through a tube peristalisis
where the esophagus joins the stomach cardia
structure of the stomach cardia , fundus,body & pylorus
what forces food into the sm intestines holding resirvoir
connects the esophagus w/duodenum stomach
what secretes mucosa to aid in swallowing esophagus
stage of swallowing when the bolus is forced to the back of the mouth & into the oropharynx voluntary
stage of swallowing when breathing is interrupted & the uvula ,epiglottis seals off the respiratory system pharyngeal
stage of swallowing when peristalic contraction begins to the move the bolus down towards the stomach esophageal
three stages in swallowing voluntary, pharyngeal & esophageal
what begins chemical digestion salivary amylase
result of mastication bolus
mechanical digestion in the mouth that results from chewing mastication
which system controls salivation PNS
The PH of the sm intestine 7-6
The PH of the stomach 2
The PH of the mouth 6-7
Created by: carolyne33



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