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Skel. Muscle Tissue

Zoo141 (Uno) Study Guide

Epimysium dense layer of collagen fibers surrounding entire skeletal muscle
Perimysium fibrous layer that divides the skeletal muscle into fascicles (bundles of skeletal muscle fibers
Endomysium delicate connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers
Tendon bundle of collagenous connective tissue attaching muscle to bone
Aponeurosis broad sheet of collagenous connective tissue attaching muscle to bone
Development of skeletal muscle fibers myoblasts fuse into large multinucleate cells, which differentiate into skeletal muscle fibers (some myoblasts remain undifferentiated, as myosatellite cells)
Sarcolemma plasma membrane
Sarcoplasm cytoplasm
Myofibrils bundles of protein filaments called myofilaments, which contain repeating functional unit called sarcomeres a. thin filaments: composed primarily of actin b. thick filaments: composed primarily of myosin
Transverse tubules (T tubules) carry electrical activity from sarcolemma into cell interior
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) -carry electrical activity from sarcolemma into cell interior -stores and releases calcium, to start muscle contraction a. terminal cisternae = expanded chambers that contact T tubule, forming triad
A band contains the entire width of the thick filaments
H band contains the part of the thick filaments that does not overlap the thin filaments
I band contains the part of the thin filaments that does not overlap the thick filaments
M line connect the central portion of each thick filament
Z line marks boundary between adjacent sarcomeres; consists of actinin proteins
G-actin (globular actin) contains active sites that bind to myosin
F-actin (filamentous actin) twisted strand composed of two rows of G-actin molecules
Nebulin holds the F-actin strand together
Tropomyosin strands that cover the active sites on G-actin
Troponin has three subunits, that bind to tropomyosin, G-actin, and calcium
Myosin has head that binds to thin filaments, and tail
Titin forms core of thick filament
Structure of Neuromuscular intercellular connection between muscle fiber and neuron
Synaptic Terminal of Neuron contains vesicles filled with Ach
Motor End Plate of Muscle Fiber has deep creases called junctional folds
Synaptic Cleft space containing AChE (enzyme that breaks down ACh)
Latent Period action potential sweeps across sarcolemma, SR releases Ca ions
Contraction Phase tension rises to peak, as cross-bridge interactions occur
Relaxation Phase tension decreases, as Ca levels fall, tropomyosin covers the active sites on actin, and myosin is blocked from binding to actin
Motor Unit all the muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron
Isometric Contraction muscle contraction without change in length
Isotonic contraction muscle length changes during contraction a. concentric contraction: muscle shortens during contraction b. eccentric contraction: muscle lengthens during contraction
Sources of energy stored in a typical muscle fiber 1. ATP 2. Creatine Phosphate (CP) 3. Glycogen
ATP production in resting muscle 1. more than enough oxygen available for mitochondria 2. primary energy sources: glucose and fatty acids from blood enter mitochondria 3. surplus of ATP used to convert creatine to creatine phosphate, and glucose to glycogen
ATP production in muscle at peak activity levels 1. not enough oxygen available for mitochondria 2. primary energy sources: glucose from stored glycogen -> glycolysis (lactic acid also produced)
Created by: 100008367637316



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