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unit 4

Large animal nursing common diseases of ruminants

specialized epithelial cells in the jejunum and ileum absorb antibodies by pincytosis
several lab tests are available for direct or indirect detection of maternal antibodies, including single radial immunodiffusion, sodium sulfite precipitation, etc failure of passive transfer
primarlily STS or serum total solids testing is useful for monitoring the overall success of a farms colostrum feeding program
specialized epithelial cells in the jejunum and ileum absorb antibodies by pincytosis
several lab tests are available for direct or indirect detection of maternal antibodies, including single radial immunodiffusion, sodium sulfite precipitation, etc failure of passive transfer
primarlily STS or serum total solids testing is useful for monitoring the overall success of a farms colostrum feeding program
a common problem among young dairy and beef calves associated with multiple infectious and noninfectious causes is called scours or diarrhea
regardless if it is viral or bacterial affected calves often develop watery diarrhea, rapidly leading to dehydration , metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, shock and hpotherma
treatment for scourcs indludes rapid preplacement of lost fluids, gzccida
nutritional myodegeneration is known as white muscle disease - occurs in young calves, lambs and kids born to dams receiving diets deficient in selenium during gestation
dietary deficiency of what may cause degeneration of cardiac or skeletal muscle selenium or Vit E, both can be administered before parturition
ewe or doe dams should be vaccinated 1 month before parturition with clostridium perfringens type C and D toxoid and clostridium tetani toxoid
one of the most important components of successful rearing of lambs is establishment of a strong ewe-lamb bond
to avoid lamb stealing and rejection of the lamb by the ewe and to promote the ewe-lamb bond pregnant dams should birth in individual lambing pens and be allowed to lick amniotic fluid from the lamb to clear the airway and stimulate breathing
kid and lamb mortality occurs during the first 48 hours of life tow major problems that may occur are hypothermia and hypoglycemia, good management practices and ensuring the wax plug is removed from the teat postpartum aids in nursing
a disease of young sheep and goats caused by C. perfringens is enterotoxemia
enterotoxemia causes clinical signs of severe enterocolitis, sudden death, diarrhea in goats and neurologic sign in lambs
the cause of enterotoxemia from C. perfringens is thought to come from change in feeding habits or giving carbohydrate-rich feed serving as a nutrient substrate for rapid poliferation because the organism lives in the intestines all ready
treatment of c. perfringens type C and D consist of IV fluids, antitoxin, anti-inflammatories and antibiotics.
small ruminants are considered highly susceptible to enterotoxemia and should be vaccinated every 6 months
to establish the cause of rumen dysfunction what testing can be useful the analysis of rumen fluid to include assessment of color, consistency, odor, pH, microscopic exam, rumen chloride and redox potential
analysis of rumen fluid consistant with grain overload include color-milky gray, odor-acidic smell, pH - less than 5.5 (normal 6.5-6.8)
pharyngeal trauma is most always caused by improper use of a balling gun, long-dose syringe, speculum, paste dewormer gun, and other medicine administering tools
clinical signs of damage to the pharyngeal area include anorexia, salivation, malodorous breath, extension of the head and neck, feed coming from the nares and mild bloat
pharyngeal trauma in cattle can be prevented by careful use of oral dosing equipment
In ruminants the term indigestion describes the disruption of normal reticulorumen function.
indigestion results from a rapid feed change or introduction of feed materials that rapidly change the rumen environment, moldy or overheated feed
clinical signs include anorexia, reduced rumen motility and diarrhea all of which resolves within a few days
the consumtion of excessive amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrate feed and subsequent production of large quantities of lactic acid in the rumin is called grain overload (carbohydrate engorgement, lactic acidosis)
excess carbohydrate ingestion leads to volatile fatty acids which lowers the pH and decreases rumen motility allowing Streptococcus bovis to proliferate and produce large amounts of lactic acid, along with lactobacillus
grain overload can be fatal those that do not die may develop secondary problems such as remenitis, liver abscess, laminitis or polioencephalomalacia
rumen fluid analysis diagnoses the problem and it is treated by rapid removal of rumen contents either via tube or surgery, antacids, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, thiamine, IVF and replacement of normal rumen microflora
rumen bloat is described ass free gas bloat resulting from failure to eructate normally associated with choke, forgein body, hypocalcemia or pharyngitis
frothy bloat occurs when large quanties of legumes or certain grains are ingested, resultin in developemtn of froth in the rumen that blocks eructation
clinical signs of bloat include distention of the left paralumbar fossa, discomfort, dysphnea with open mouth breathing, anorexia, salivation, anxiety, depression, and sudden death
treatment of gas bloat involves passing an orogastric tube, forced exercise to stimulate rumen motility
treatment of frothy bloat involves dissipation of froth before the gas can be expelled. this is done with the help of household detergent, mineral oil or dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate
traumatic reticuloperitonitis is also called hardware disease
hardware disease result from (TRP) penetration of the reticulum bby a foreign body and is one of the most common GI problems affecting the forestomach compartment os mature dairy cattle
foreign bodies ingested by cattle like wires, nails may have four outcomes 1.attachment of the object to a magnet with no further disease problems 2. penetration of the reticular wall with acute inflammation and mild clinical disease 3. same as 2 but perforation of the reticular wall into the peritoneal cavity
TRP outcomes 4. migration with penetration into the peritoneal or throacic cavity resulting abscessation, pericarditis, myocarditis
acute cases of TRP include these clinical symptoms anorexia, sharp decrease in milk production, reluctance to rise or move, cranial abdominal pain and kyphosis
treatment of TRP involves oral administration of a magnet, along with broad spectrum antimicrobials, even surgery
a severe problem for small ruminants due to infection with the same internal parasites endoparasitism to include Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi and Trichostrongylus
severe parasitism results in anemea, pale mm, subcutaneous edema from hypoproteinemia, poor fleece and weight loss anemia, pale mm, subcutaneous edema from hypoproteinemia, poor fleece and weight loss
because over time these parasites have developed multi-drug resistance parasite control has been a major problem in small ruminant flocks and heard
prevention of severe parasitism includes pasture rotation, strategic deworming protocols using effective anthelmintics and selective culling of animals with heavy parasite burden
a condition that starts as acute diarrhea where diarrhea can be reoccurring bouts with or without fever, anorexia and dehydration somonellosis
the use of antibiotics in treatment of somonellosis is controversial because the recent isolation of multi-drug-resistant strains. Treatment ususally is anti-inflam., fluids
a common viral pathogen affecting all ages of cattle manifesting as sudden onset of fever, depression, anorexia, oral and GI ulcers and erosions, diarrhea bovine viral diarrhea virus
BVD also plays a role in respiratory diseases in cattle by causing immunosuppression and susceptibility to secondary bacterial papthogens
a calf exposed to BVD in utero may become persistently infected (PI) and immunotolerant to the virus. Later in life if exposed to BVD this could result in BVD-MD mucosal disease signs include, persistent diarrhea, weight loss, anorexia, crusty eys, blunting of oral papille and chronic coronary band lesions, 100$ mortality
a disease characterized in cattle by chronic diarrhea and weight loss, caused by myobacterium paratuberculosis a slow-growing, acid fast organism Johne's disease terminal disease for which there is no cure. infecting calves with signs showing around age 2 .there is a vaccine however.
johnes disease is transmitted via the fecal-oral route
in small ruminants johnes disease is not characterized by diarrhea
because respiratory diseases in ruminants are very common the result is the pathogens play an important part in the vaccination program
respiratory disease that affects cattle of all ages; beef cattle during the first 45 days in the feed lot and dairy calves younger than 6 months bovine respiratory disease syndrome beef cattle the disease is often refered to as "shipping disease"
the syndrome BRDS is caused by a complex interaction of respiratory viruses, bacteria, and stress
in BRDS the first to happen is the infection of one or more of the respiratory viruses, followed by bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract or bronchopneumonia
cattle with BRDS exhibit these clinical signs lowered heads, anorexia, fever, mucopurulent ocular and nasal discharge, cough and dyspnea sometimes mortality may be high
successful treatment of BRDS in cattle depends on early diagnosis and the institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy; isolation of infected animals or treatment of the entire herd
the mass treatment of animal populations before onset of overt disease is called metaphylaxis
castration, dehorning, deworming and vaccination of calves before weaning and transport from stocker to feeder operations decreases stress this is called preconditioning
a progressive respiratory failure but also causes mastitis, neurologic sign, and arthritis is called ovine progressive pneumonia OPP
the predominant form in the US is the pulmonary form of OPP
clinical signs of OPP include exercise intolerance, open-mouth breathing, exaggerated expiratory effort and an occasional dry cough, weight loss despite a good appetite, mortality 3-8 month of onset
diseases of the reproductive system and the mammary glad are extremely common in ruminants therefore, veterinary technicians may be involved in programs designed to monitor or control these diseases.
an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by invasion of the streak canal fo the teat by a variety of pathogens is called mastitis
mastitis can be categorized in several different ways 1. clinical and subclinical
clinical mastitis 2.refers to an infection resulting in elevated somatic cell count and a clinical change in milk
subclinical mastitis 1. subclinical mastitis refers to an inectio of the mammary gland resulting in elevation in somatic cell count but no clinical change in milk from the affected quarter
mastitis can be subdivid into two broad but overlapping categories based on the source of the infection contagious and environmental
mastitis that is spread from an infected mammary gland to a healthy one via contaminated milking equipment, through nursing calves, or by the milders hands contagious mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus
mastitis results when bacteria from the cows envirounment gain access to the mammary gland and cause infection environmental from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae
clinical mastitis is diagnosed by clinical exam of the milk and udder
subclinical mastitis is diagnosed by the use of California mastitis test CMT
aseptic dollection of a milk sample for culture often provides important information on the cause of mastitis and may guide treatment decisions
cows with toxic mastitis are often suffering from endotoxemia and usually have a water or serous from the gland
gangrenous mastitis causes gangrene of the gland with a distinct blue line of demarcation separating normal and affected tissues
both toxic and gangrenous mastitis can cause mortality
treatment of mastitis involves the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy systemic and/or intramammary, anti-inflammatories, IVF and supplemental Ca
prevention of mastitis is paramount in importance to the dairy industry. Control may be acheieved by this 5 step plan 1.hygiene: pre and post milking teat dipping 2.use proper milking procedures and well functioning equipment 3.practice dry cow treatment of every quarter of every cow along with a vet prescribed therapeutic plan 4. cull cows as economically necessary
prevention of mastitis plan 5. maintain good records on each cow in terms of production, reproduction, milk quality and clinical mastitis
mastitis in small ruminants can be caused by a variety of bacteria
the form of mastitis sever enough to cause death and is associated with gangrenous form is called blue bag mastitis caused by s. aureus or P. hhaemolytica
OPP can also result in mastitis, the udder will feel firm when palpated as a result of the presence of birous connective tissue, however the milk will appear normal
retained placenta affecting dairy cattle if it has not been expelled with in 12 hours after calving 2-4 hours is typical
postpartum uterine infection is metritis most commonly associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes
endometritis refers to infection of only the endometrial layer of the uterus
septic metritis refers to severe uterine infection of the endometrium and deeper layers of the uterus in the postpartum period
perimetritis is rare and invloves infection of all uterine layers
a common pathologic condition in goats that may develop in does with or without exposure to a buck. Accumulation of fluid in the uterus pseudopregnancy
Metabolic disorders a common disease affecting periparturient dairy cows and is the result of severe decline in serum calcium, usually occurring within 48 hours of calving periparturient Hypocalcemia (milk fever)
clinical signs of milk fever include tremors, weakness and a staggering gait, eventually leading to recumbency
hypocalcemia results from feeding dry cows high-calcium diet, causing the lack of response by the parathyroid gland and a decrease in vit D levels. cows slowly metabolize calcium from the bone when the demand from calcium is increased during lactation
ketosis occurs in high-producing dairy cows the first few months of lactation from not being able to meet the energy demands of lactation. to provide energy for milk production, the cow begins to break down fat resulting in the formation of ketone bodies in the blood
pregnancy toxemia a medtabolic disease that commonly affects pregnant ewes and does during late gestation
clinical signs of pregnancy toxemia include anorexia, hypoglycemia, ketonemia, ketonuria, weakness, depression, incoordination, mental dullness and impaired vision, recumbency and death
treatment is usually iv glucose, b-vitamins, propylene glycol and supplemental Ca
evaluating the BCS of sheep and goats by palpation of the lumbar epaxial musculature
the most common neoplastic disease of cattle is BLV bovine leukosis virus associated with lymphosarcoma
the incidence of BLV and the number of cattle that develop neoplastic disease is small. maglignant tumors develop in lymph nodes, lymph tissue behind the eye or around the spinal cord, abomasum, heart, kidney, uterus or other organs
the most common cause of lymph node abcess in small ruminants and is a major cause of carcass condemnation in sheep is caseous lymphadenitis CL
caseous lymphadenitis is a highly contagious disease caused by C. pseudotuberculosis and is the most common cause of lymph node abscess in small ruminants
sheep more than goats are more prone to development of copper toxicity from trace mineralized salt, cattle mineral blocks, copper oxide wire particles and copper sulfate foot baths
a disease caused by the intraerythrocytic organism Anaplasma marginale is called anaplasmosis
RBC infected with the organism are removed from the boddy by the liver and spleen, subsequently destroyed resulting in anemia.
clinical signs associated with anaplasmosis are pale mucous membranes, icterus, weakness and depression or aggressive behaviour resulting from anoxia to the brain
the caustive agent of an acute disease that results in sudden death in animals and humans called antrhrax is bacillus anthracis, if anthrax is suspected the area federal veterinarian should be notified
the causes of sudden death in cattle are anaplasmosis, anthrax, clostridial disease, lightning and bloat
cardiovascular system vegetative or ulcerative lesions may develp on the heart valves of cattle, the right atrioventricular valve as a result of septic emboli from other sites. because of inadequate penetration of the lesions treatment is not usually successful
inflammation of the pericardial membrane surrounding the heart pericarditis
pericarditis in cattle is usually due to penetration of the pericardial sac by a metallic foreign body, resulting in a mixed bacterial infection
nervous system a fatal, viral, neurolgic disease in mammals rabies
a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that manifests primarily as weight loss scrapie
spores of the bacterium Clostridium tetani may infect wounds, resulting in tetanus an anaerobic environment, such as a would the organism produces several potent neurotoxins reaponsible for the clinical signs
a CNS disease that results from an underlying defect in thiamine metabolism polioencephalomalacia (polio)
Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for three different clincal syndromes in ruminants septicemia, abortion and neurologic disease
disease affecting dairy goats causing nonresponsive arthritis in adults and acute leukoencephalomyelitis in young goats caprine arthritis encephalitis
pinkeye caused by chlamydia psittachi and Mycoplasma conjunctivae is called keratoconjunctivitis
infectious and contagious ocular disease of cattle charcterized by conjuctivitis and corneal ulceration infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis IBK Moraxella bovis
musculoskeletal system the most commonly encountered problem in ruminants and most often caused by leasions or problems in the foot is lameness
foot rot is an infection of the interdigital skin and underlying tissues interdigital necrobacillosis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum
treatment for foot rot indludes aggressive topical treatment and systemic antibiotics, bandaging and foot baths, surgery
lameness in multiple animals in a herd usually is due to contagious foot rot caused by Dichelobaacter nodosus and F. necrophorum
a circumscribed erosive and proliferative lesion on the hind fee, adjacent to the interdigital ridge and heel bulbs papillomatous digital dermatitis or hairy heel wart. granulation tissue developd with outgrowths os dermal tissue that frossly resemble hair
a diffuse, aseptic inflammation of the corium of the feet. acute laminitis occurs sporadically and may be due to sudden excessive grain ingestion laminitis or founder
clinical signs of founder include stiffness, pain, reluctance to walk and difficulty rising
infections by clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum are two important causes of lameness and sudden death in young cattle blackleg and malignang edema
the clostridium produce spores that enter the animal through the disgestive tract or through skin wounds, producing severe necortizing myositis and cellulitis
diseases of the skin cutaneous papillomas are a benign neoplasia caused by papillomavirus otherwise called cutaneous papillomas warts
the fungus responsible for ringworm in cattle is called Trichophyton verrucosum
a common viral disease of small ruminants causes crusty proliferative lesions around the mouth and nose of lambs and kids and udder of ewes and does contagious ecthyma ORF
contagious ecthyma, sore mouth, orf, a common viral disease of small ruminants is zoonotic transmissible to humans
Urinary system an ascending urinary tract infection that often affect females because of their short wide urethra caused by Corynebacterium renale or Escherichia coli Pyelonephritis
clinical signs of pyelonephritis are hematuria, pyuria, stranguria (straining to urinate), discomfort during urination and frequent urination
a common disease of small ruminants males fed a diet of grain and high calcium forage are affected by urolithiasis, clinical signs include dysuria, stranguria, vocalization, tail flagging, abdominal distention
common locations for obstruction include the urethral process (an appendage at the distal end of the penis used in reproduction), the urethra at the level of the distal sigmoid flexture
treatment of urolithiasis is an emergency surgery or urethral catheterization
prevention of this disease includes increased water consumption, acidify the urine, eliminate grain and high-Ca from diet
Created by: tnewhouse