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Unit 4 Objectives

Large Animal Medical Nursing GI, Liver, neurologic

The most common signs of gastrointestinal disease in the adult horse include colic, weight loss, anorexia, diarrhea, and fever
testing for gastrointestinal disease may include hematology and serum chemistry, oral examination, rectal exam, abdominocentesis, US, radiography, endoscopic exam of the stomach and fecal diagnostic testing
most common GI condition in horses referring to any condition that causes abdominal pain colic
treatments of colic include minimal -analgesics, hand walking, sedation and laxatives (mineral oil via nasogastric tube); aggressive - intensive treatment either medical or surgical
List of supplies for a colic work up nasogastric tube, standard blood work, sedating medications, IVC, US, rectal exam gloves, abdominocentesis
the typical colic exam should include assessment of pain, attitude, temperature, pulse, respiration, mucous membrane color, CRT, and GI motility (absence of GI sounds is significant)
mild pain form colic can include these signs pawing, stretching out with or without attempts to urinate, curling the upper lip or standing quietly without a desire to move or eat
severe pain from colic can include these signs violent attempts to throw themselves to the ground, rolling back and forth, banging the side of their head on the ground, inability to stand, elevated heart rate
Colic patients needing surgery to correct abdominal displacement have an incision at the right flank laparotomy
there are several things to take into account when deciding which surgical approach to use these include direction of the displacemnt, the presence of volvulus, the condition of the animal, and the surgeons preference
predisposing conditions for gastric and colonic ulcerations include stress, a high-grain diet, musculoskeletal pain and administration of NSAIDs
clinical signs of ulcerations include bruxism(grinding) of the teeth, hypersalivation, abdominal pain after eating, and anorexia
treatment of ulcerations include antiulcer medications, ex histamine blockers, intestinal protectants, and proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole), reducing stress and feeding small frequent grain meals with alfalfa hay
Colonic ulcer occur where in the right dorsal colon and are secondary to "Bute" (phenylbutazone NSAID) toxicosis
other than being hard to treat colonic ulcers can cause abdominal pain, marked protein loss, melena, peritonitis, colonic stricture or colonic rupture (right dorsal colitis)
the most predisposing factors for the development of phenylbutazone toxicosis is dehydration and excessive dosages
colitis in horses can result in rapid fluid loss (hypovolemia), shock, endotoxemia, electrolyte loss and acid-base imbalance as a result of diarrhea
other clinical signs of colitis include depression, inappetence, abdominal pain, tachycardia, injected (brick red) mucous membranes and prolonged CRT
common causes of acute colitis in horses are infectious (salmonellosis, clostridiosis, ehrichiosis, stongyle infection), toxic (NSAIDS, blister beetle toxicity, antibiotic adminsitration)
the most life threatening causes of colitis include salmonella, clostridium and neorickettsia risticii (Ehrlichia)
the treatment for patients with colitis inclued quarintine, IVF to support cardiovascular system, replace fluid losses and correct electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, colloid therapy (plasma, hetastarch)
complications of colitis include laminitis (founder), cardiovascular collapse, cardiac arrhythmias and thrombophlebitis
illness caused by N risticii and produces diarrhea, fever, abortion and laminitis potomac horse fever
obstruction of the esophagus, usually as a result of impacted food in the esopagus choke
the most common neoplasia in horses and most commonly affects the GI tract lymphosarcoma
most common neoplasia of the stomach is squamous cell carcinoma
liver disease in horses can result from toxic, infectious, inflammation, metabolic, obstructive and neoplactic causes
the best way to determine the cause of liver disease is liver biopsy
four most common brain disorders are rabies, equine viral encephalitis, leukoencephalomalacia and head trauma
horses should be vaccinated for rabies on an annual basis
four main types of equine encephalitis are eastern, western, venzuelan and west nile
encephalitis is transmitted by mosquitoes
clinical signs of encephalitis range from neurologic signs, ataxia, fever, depression hyperesthesia
treatment for encephalitis is supportive care for hydration and diet
diagnosing for encephalitis is done through serologic testing for antibodies
vaccination against encephalitis includes Eastern, western and west nile and is very effective 2-3 times a year
equine leukoencephalomalacia is also called moldy corn toxicity
EL is caused by the ingestion of a fungal toxin in corn that causes liquefactive necrosis of the cerebral cortex.
EL signs include head pressing, depression, altered states of consciousness, grave prognosis
two types of skull fractures causing head trauma include depression fractures of the frontal and parietal bones from frontal impact. fractures of the petrous temporal bone and of the juction of the basisphenoid and basioccipital bone from flipping over backwards
treatment for skull fractures includes supportive care and sometimes surgery to decompress frontal and parietal fractures to improve neurologic signs with snti-inflammatory therapy and DMSO
a syndrome of adult horses that results from arthritis at the junction of the stylohyoid bone and temporal bone in the head just below the inner ear temperohyoid osteoarthropathy THO
THO caused by arthritis itself or to fracture of bones surrounding the joint
clinical signs of THO include if damage to the vestibular and facial nerves then head tilt, ataxia, nystagmus, facial paralysis and difficulty swallowing
treatment of THO include anti-inflammatories and antibiotics or surgery to remove a portion of the stylohyoid or ceratohyoid bone to decrease pressure at the joint and prevent facture
the five most common spinal cord injuries include wobbler syndrome, equine protozoal myelitis, equine rhinopneumonitis, equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy and vertebral fracture
damage to the spinal cord causes spinal ataxia (incoordination of the limbs without abnormalities of the brain and brainstem)causing dog sitting and recombency
diagnostics to aid in spinal cord disorders include neurologic exam, cervical x-rays, myelographic exam, CSF analysis
cervical vertebral malforation (Wobbler syndrome) is a manisfestation of developmental orthopedic disease characterized by compression of the cervical spinal cord by malformed or unstable cervical vertebrae
clinical signs and treatment include symmetric incoordination usually in the hind limbs requiring surgery to improve neurologic status of patients
equine protozoal myelitis EPM is caused by a protozoan parasite called sarcocystis neurona, where opossums are the primary hosts and is transmitted most likely via fecal-oral transmission.
signs and treatment of EPM include ataxia, weakness, muscle atrophy, cranial nerve damage. it is treated with antiprotozoal medications
a virus that not only causes neurologic disease but can cause respiratory disease, abortion is called equine herpesvirus
equine herpesvirus clinical signs include ascending paralysis of hindlimbs most often, urinary incontinence, poor tail tone.
treatment of equine herpesvirus includes antiviral medication and supportive care
prognosis of equine herpesvirus is 80% return to normal neurologic function. it is not reportable to the state vet and patients are to be isolated as now the outbreaks are more fatal
equine degenerative myelopathy causes symmetric spinal ataxia more severe in the hindlimbs. poor prognosis for return to normal neurologic function
most common sites of vertebral fracture are cervical (sx attempted), caudal thoracic and thoraccolumbar (sx not attempted)
highly fatal neurologic disease in horses characterized by stiff, stilted gait, hyperexcitability, seizure, and coma tetanus-organism present in the environment usually from a wound. horses should be vaccinated annually
a rapidly progressive often fatal neurologic disease characterized by profound weakness, muscle fasciculations and dysphagia(inablility to swallow). botulism-the organism produces a neurotoxin that may gain entry to the body by colonizing the intestinal tract, infected wounds or contaminating feedstuff. preventable via vaccination
Created by: tnewhouse