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Unit 4 Objectives

Large Animal Medical Nursing Respiratory, cardiac, hemolymphatic

what form of demeanor is recommended when reassuring large animal patients a quiet, calm voice and slow movement is essential for reassuring large animal patients
to avoid being kicked, bitten or pushed one needs to stay alert and be practical
You need to wear the appropriate clothing when working with large animals to remain safe this includes protective leather boots
a medical record provides the only record of the patients progress or deterioration and is a legal document
the normal parameters for a horse are temp: 99-101.5, pules: 28-44 beats/minute, respiration: 6-16 breaths/minute
vaccines for foals tetanus, E/W equine encephalomyelitis, rabies, W nile virus, botulism, equine herpes virus, equine viral arteritis, equine influenza, potomac horse fever, strangles
vaccines for horses tetanus, E/W equine encephalomyelitis, rabies, W nile virus, anthrax, botulism, equine herpes virus, equine viral arteritis, influenza, potomac horse fever, strangles, rotavirus
Respiratory Diseases horses with respiratory disease will exhibit the following signs increased respiratory rate (tachypnea), and effort (dyspnea), nasal discharge, and cough, decreased performance, fever and lymphadenopathy
horses with upper respiratory problems those in the larynx, pharynx, nasal passages and sinus may have unilateral or bilateral nasal dischare or decreased airflow from one or both nostrils and may make a noise when breathing (stridor)
horses with problems in the lower respiratory trace the lungs and trachea may have bilateral nasal discharge, but abnormal lung sounds are often audible during rebreathing exam ie crackles, wheezes
diagnostic tests that are used for upper respiratory assessment endoscopy, radiography, CT and MRI
diagnostic tests that are used for lower respiratory assessment are bronchoscopy, BAL, TTW, US and radiology
a common highly contagious respiratory disease of horses caused by the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus equiequi Strangles -produces swelling and abscesses of the submandibular and retropharyngeal lyph nodes
affected horses with strangles have the following symtoms fever, depression, poor appetite and painful swellings under the mandible
the swelling under the mandible is caused from abscess that rupture and drain purulent discharge. other lymph nodes may also be and drain into the guttural pouches.
abscess can also develop in the abdominal area this is called bastard strangles
recovered horses remain contagious and should remain away from other horses for 6 weeks after recovery from clinical disease
asymptomatic carriers of strangles pose a greater risk to other horses because of persistent infection of the guttural pouches
two large symmetric dilatations of the eustachian tube that are present in all Equidae located just above the pharynx and larynx. they can be accessed during endoscopic exam through openings in the dorsal lateral nasopharynx guttural pouches
the purpose of the guttural pouches may be to lower the temperature of the blood to the brain during exercise
bacterial infection of guttural pouches (strangles) is known as guttural pouch empyema,characterized by swelling in the throat and bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge
fungal infection of the guttural pouch is called guttural pouch mycosis, caused by Aspergillus, characterized by a plaque usually forming over the internal carotid artery close to the nerves responsible for controlling swallowing. Rupture of the artery or dysphagia can occur
accumulation of air in guttural pouches in foals and weanlings is called guttural pouch tympany a fluctuant, nonpainful swelling in the throat-latch region
a contagious virus that produces respiratory disease, abortion and neonatal and neurologic disease equine herpes virus causative agent of rhinopneumonitis
herpes is transmitted by aerosol transmission, respiratory secretions and fomite transmission. incubation 2-10 days and can be ill for 4-5 days
symptoms of herpes virus (neurologic) signs of incoordination, inability to urinate and poor tail tone
vaccination protocol for equine herpes virus is as follows horses who are actively around other horses should be vaccinated every 3-4 months and pregnant mares during 3,5,7,9th months
and allergic airway disease caused by airway inflammation, narrowing of small airways and excessive production of mucus heaves or recurrent airway obstruction RAO
clinical signs include affects 15 year and older with cough, nasal discharge, flared nostrils, increased RR, increased EE, and wheezing. Fluctuating seasonally
horses can be managed with environment changes including low-dust bedding, soaking hay, keeping dust and molds down. some need corticosteroids and/or bronchodilator therapy
a common cause of poor performance in horses of all ages, predominant to young horses inflammatory airway disease IAD
the cause of IAD is said to be from inhaled foreign matter causing inflammation causing an excessive production of mucus and bronchoconstriction. both impair gas exchange in the lungs making exercise intolerabel
cytologic exam of a bronchoalveolar lavage or ttw is important to characterize the type of inflammation and rule out infectious causes
aspiration of bacteria that normally inhabit the oral cavity from choking and upper respiratory tract is called bacterial pneumonia and pleuropneumonia
clinical signs of pneumonia include exercise intolerance, fever, tachypnea, cough , bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, inappetence and chest pain (pleurodynia)
diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia is based on physical exam, blood work abnormalities, diagnostic imaging, c&s exam of TTW.
Cardiovascular Disease horses are usually asymptomatic however when they do occur they can indlude exercise intolerance, tachycardia, weakness, syncope (fainting) and respiratory crackles on auscultation.
techniques to diagnose cardiovascular disease include electrocardiogram ECG, echocardiogram, measurement of blood level cardiac enzymes (troponin I)
a common arrhythmia in horses, particularly fit and athletic horses is called second-degree atrioventricular AV block
how does the arrhythmia occur as the result of altered conduction through the AV node in the heart, resulting in contracture of the atria without the ventricles
why does the arrhythmia occur because of high vagal tone, electrolyte imbalances and the effects of certain medications (zylazine)
the most common clinically relevant arrhythmia in horses is called atrial fibrillation
horses are predisposed because of the large size of their atria and their high vagal tone
clinical signs of atrial fibrillation include exercise intolerance or poor performance. horses are predisposed because of the large size of their atria and their high vagal tone
treatment of AF for patients without underlying heart disease include use of quinidine via nasalgastric tube or electrical conversion
Hemolymphatic Disease a contagious viral disease that produces limb swelling, conjunctivitis, abortion and respiratory disease in horses equine viral arteritis
clinical signs of viral arteritis are painful limb swelling, and vasculitis
vaccination for viral arteritis are given to stallions infected after puberty with PI in the sex glands, and nonpregnant mares. the virus can be passed to the mares during breeding. abortion occurs at any point due to damage to the blood vessels of the placenta
This vaccine is approved for use under the supervision of the US Department of Agriculture. negative tests need to be taken before export and before vaccination
a persistent viral disease of horses that causes anemia, fever, and weight loss equine infectious anemia EIA once infected horses become permanently infected and are carriers of the virus for the rest of their lives
the virus IAE is transmitted from infected horses by large biting flies (tabanids). antibodies are produced by infected horses
to tests used to confirm the virus is Coggins test/AGID (agar gel immunodiffusion test) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for EIA virus
to test for the virus blood must be drawn by a USDA-accredited Vet and sent to a federally or state recognized lab
results of a positive test for horses being sold or travelling out of state include the following procedures upon a positive test result the entire herd is quarantined until all members are tested. infected horses must be quarantined for life (at a distance greater than 200 yards from others) or euthanized.
a bacterial disease transmitted by biting ticks of the genus Ixodes species (Ehrilichia equi)is called Anaplasmosis or equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis
clinical signs include fever, anemia icterus, lethargy, stiffness and limb edema
treatment of the bacterial infection is IV oxytetracycline for 5 to 7 days and is a rapid response
a bacterial disease caused by infection from biting ticks of the genus Ixodes species Borrelia burgdorferi lyme disease
the most common clinical signs attributed to Lyme disease include stiffness, mild to moderate lameness in multiple limbs and behavioral changes also, chronic weight loss, skin hypersensitivity and resentment to being touched, joint swelling
diagnostic testing can be challenging but includes Western Blot, ELISA, multiplex assay and the C-6 ELISA SNAP test
treatment for Lyme disease includes oral oxytetracycline or oral doxycycline for at least 1 month. No vaccine is approved in horses, however the dog vaccine is safe to use
Created by: tnewhouse