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Chap 18 cont 10

Intramuscular administration of medications

IM route provides what type of absorption more rapid absorption than SC but less absorption than IV
true or false it is best to insert the needle into the muscle with the syringe on it false it is best to insert the needle first so if the animal moves the added weight of the syringe will not pull out the needle
If a vessel is punctured at insertion which is confirmed by aspiration of the needle what should be done the needle should be removed and you should start over
list several locations that can be used for IM administration of medications lateral cervical, semimembranosus and semitendinosus, pectoral and gluteal on both sides
what should be considered to determine the best IM site of injection volume to be delivered, viscosity of teh solution, potential injury to personnel and the potential for complications with the muscle chosen
injection at the lateral cervical muscle is best for protection of personnel, and for administering small volumes. it is discouraged in foals as soreness in the neck muscle after injection discourages nursing
where are the semimembranosus/semitendinosus muscles located on the caudal aspect of the hindlimb between the point of the buttock and the hock
which nerve needs to be avoided in the S/S muscle region sciatic nerve that runs down the lateral aspect of the leg, hitting it can cause paralysis
what size needle should be use 18-19ga needle 1.5 in with detached syringe
for large amounts of medications what should be done to avoid excessive distention in the skin redirect the needle in several places without removing it to avoid tissue necrosis
pectoral muscles are not often used because they are small and repeated IM injections can result in pain, swelling and edema
advantage of gluteal muscles or buttocks muscles the largest muscle mass in the hind quarters can withstand large volumes and repeatd injections
disadvantage of gluteal muscle for IM injection site it is hard to detect swelling and abcess drainage is difficult
why are IM injections in cattle discouraged because they are eventually consumed and to prevent muscle damage
if an IM injection needs to be given to cattle it should be done where the muscles of the neck
what is the line of boarders for IM injection for both horses and cattle spine, nuchal ligament, and scapula (a triangle)
what are the guidelines for IM injections for cattle the needle must be clean and sharp, injection should be smooth to reduce muscle damage and no more than 10ml of substance should be given in one spot at one time
S/S muscle injections are highly discouraged in cattle because damage to these areas can result in damage to higher priced cuts of beef and loss to the farmer
what muscle group is preferred for IM injection in sheep and goats (ovine and caprine) the neck is commonly used, because they have such small muscle mass and can only withstand small volume amounts
what is the preferred muscle for IM injection in porcine (pigs) because of their thick skin and the tendency to store a thick layer of SC body fat the cervical neck muscle just caudal and ventral to the ear are used
what is the maximum volume amount given at one time to pigs adults - 5-10ml and piglets 1-2 ml per site
what is the preferred IM injection site for camelids (llamas and alpacas S/S muscles and the neck should be avoided because of soreness in the area
what muscle groups should be avoided in meat animals semitendinosus, semimembranosus and shoulder muscles, and gluteal
if IM injections are required the preferred site in meat animals is the neck
medications given SQ are absorbed less rapidly then IV or IM injections but faster than medications given orally
sites of SQ injections in meat and nonmeat animals horses-loose skin on the side and at the base of the neck. cattle-loose skin at the neck and just behind the elbow. llamas, goats-behind the elbow. sheep-inguinal area and the flak fold. pigs-axillary and inguinal area or the skin caudal to the base of t
leptospirosis vaccines in cattle are given where in the loose skin on either side of the ischiorectal fossa
true or false when giving a brucellosis vaccine the technician should tent the skin false to reduce the risk of accidental injection into the person
the injection of a substance between the dermis and the epidermis is called intradermal administration
what is the absorption rate of ID injections very slow
why are ID injections perfomed for skin testing, allergen identification and provision of local aneshtesia. ex TB testing
as in SQ injections rubbing the skin after injection is discouraged because the medication is meant to remain localized
what type of administration is acheieved via abdominal lavage system Intraperitoneal administration
how is abdominal lavage done the desired amount of fluid is given along with any medication, the tubing is clamped off and the animal is walked. finally the tube is unclamped and the fluid is allowed to drain back into the original fluid bag.
why is the animal walked after IP administration to attempt to distribute the fluid and medication throughout the abdominal cavity while washing internal organs and breaking up any adhesions.
where are IP injections done in cattle usually is the paralumbar fossa. care is taken not to puncture the rumen on the left and internal organs on the right sides of the animal
in sheep and goats IP injections are usually reserved for kids and lambs with umbilical infection or hypoglycemia
IP is preferred in pigs (porcine) because IV catheterization is not practical in pigs
complications from IP injections include peritonitis, abscess and injury to internal organs
what is intramammary administration used for infusion of antibiotics to treat mastitis in cows and is also performed on goats and sheep
why is partial insertion of a cannula into the teat canal preferred because it delivers fewer contaminants to the udder than would occur with full insertion
why are topical ophthalmic administration used to treat ocular diseases or conditions ie ulcers, abrasions, lacerations
when both ointment and drops are needed what is the order of application apply the solution before applying the ointment. this prevents the solution from running over the ointment without being absorbed
what are the two types of ophthalmic lavages subpalpebral lavage system and the nasolacrimal duct lavage
what type of administration deposits drugs into the epidural space epidural administration, mainly used for anesthesia or pain control
what are the two locations of epidural administration cranial epidural - at the lumbosacral junction between L6 and S1 and caudal epidural - between S5 and C1 or C1 and C2
supplies necessary for epidural administration sterile gloves, local anesthetic, sterial syringe 19ga needle or 18ga epidural catheter with stylet
what medications are commonly used as epidurals lidocaine, carbocaine, xylazine and morphine
the epidural site is different in pigs than other large animal species. where is the site for pigs the lumbosacral juction (between L6 and S1) is available for epidurals, this is considered their cranial epidural
application of medications through the skin is called transdermal administration
what is the primary precaution used when working with transdermal administration wear gloves to minimize the inadvertent absorption of the medication to the technician
administration of medication such as antibiotics or anesthetic agents or steroids directly into a joint is called intrasynovial administration
materials required for intrasynovial administration sterile gloves, several needles, syringe with medication to be injected.
what type of administration is used as a method of delivering medication to a patient that cannot tolerate oral medication rectal administration
what factors play a role in determining enema administration the tube used and the volume and composition of fluid administered will vary with the size and condition of the animal
what supplies are needed for a retention enema foley catheter with balloon. it is inserted 2-4 inches and the balloon is inflated, next the enema solution is administered
Created by: tnewhouse