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Chapter 3

Cell Structure and Function

QuestionAnswer
Cell Basic Unit of structure and function of all living organisms
Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane cell's outer surface separating the intracellular compartment from the extracellular compartment
Cytoplasm = cytosol (cellular fluid) + organelles
cytosol living protoplasm it is water plus dissolved and suspended components
cytoplasm is site of many ___________ reactions especially the splitting of glucose molecues to release and store energy
nucleus boundary nuclear envelope containing nuclear pores
nucleolus spherial concentrations of RNA which form ribosomes
Chromatin DNA + proteins condense to form chromosomes during division
DNA is blueprint for all _____ synthesis protein
Ribosomes site of protein synthesis may be attached to ER or floating free in cytosol
Endoplasmic Reticulum network fo membrane enclosed channels in the form of flattened sacs or tubules
golgi complex flattened sacuoles called cisternae are for packaging finished proteins during synthesis
lysosomes membrane bound vessicles of hydrolytic enzymes involved with intracellular digestion. higher activity of cell destruction with age
mitochondria houses of cellular respiration
what provides surface area for mitochondria reactions internal membraneous folds or cristae
owhat is required for respiration reactions to continue and run efficiently oxygen
cellular respiration explain the molecules resulting from splitting glucoses move into the mitochondria where a series of multiple reactions result in energy being extracted and stored int eh form of ATP molecules
cytoskeleton-microtubules hollow tubes of protein
microfilaments slender protein strands for support and movement
lipid component of cell membrane types phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids
how is cell membrane formed forms a bilayer with hydrophobic fatty acid tails of lipid molecules forming central core of bilayered sheet and hydrophillic heads directed toward aqueous environment inside of outside the cell
what is the purpose of plasma membrane impermeability of membrane to most water soluble molecules (ions, sugars), allows movement of o2 CO2 steroids, alcohols, w2ater and urea, provides fluidity of membrane
2 types of protein components of cell membrane peripheral or integral
what determines most characteristics of membrane proteins
functions of membrane proteins pores or channelspumps or transportersreceptorsenzymesstructural proteinscell recognition
pores or channel proteins may form water filled channels through which certain small, charged ions may pass thus making membrane selectively permeablemay be passive "leak" channels or "gated" channels
pump or transporter proteins involved in active transport
receptor proteins sites for attachment for such molecules as hormones, neurotransmitters, and drugs
structural proteins supporting frame for cell as well as interconnecting cells for transport
carbohydrate component of cell membrane always attached to lipids or proteins (glycolipids or glycoproteins)
function of carbohydrate part of cell membrane enables cells to recognize eachothercell to cell adhesions can protect cells from being digested
principles of diffusion brownian movementnet movement of particles from a point of higher concentration to one of lower concentrationpassive-the steeper the gradient, the greater teh net movement of solute per unit timeficks law
brownian movement vibrating motion due to kinetic energy
ficks law expresses or accounts for factors affecting rate of diffusion of particlesDR=D A (C1-C2) D= T/ (MW * d)
simple diffusion substances move freely through lipid bilayer-non-polar, hydrophobic molecules such as 02, C02, nitrogen, fatty acids, steroids, and fat soluble vitaminssmall, uncharged polar molecules such as H20rate will vary with lipid solubility
facillitated diffusion protein channels must be used
facillitated diffusion-channel mediated small inorganic ions move down their concentration gradients through ion channelscan be specific to charge or typechannels are leakage if always open or gated if able to be plugged or closed
rate of diffusion in channel mediated facillitated diffusion will vary with: number of pores/channelssize of pores/channelselectrical charge of channels
carrier mediated facilitated diffusion movement across the membrane sometimes cannot be fully explained by ficks lawspecific protein binding sites which can pick up ions and then release them on the other side of the membraneno expenditure of energy-passive phenomenonbest ex-mov. of glucose in
osmosis flow of water across a selectively permeable membrane in response to inequalities of impermeable solute distribution "solutes suck"
how does water pass through cell membrane moves through lipid bilayermoves through protein aquaporins
osmole a measurement of effective solute concentration
isosmotic osmolarity on both sides of membrane is equal
hyperosmotic osmolarity of the solution being compared is greater (more total active particles)
hyposmotic osmolarity of the solution being compared is less (fewer total particles)
tonicity of solutions refers to... resulting net movement of water in response to concentration gradients which are established with non-penetrating solutes
hypotonic solution one with fewer non-penetrating solutescell will fill and possibly burst or lyse
hypertonic solution one with higher concentration of non-penetratin solutescell will empty or crenate
isotonic solution one with equal concentration of non-penetrating solutesno net change in cell volume
comparison of osmolarity and tonicity osmolarity tells us how many total particles a solution contains and tonicity tells us how a cell's volume will change in response to non-penetrating solute particles
Dialysis diffusion of small solutes across a selectively permeable membrane leaving large solutes behind
filtration fluid and mall solutes are moved across the membrane by a pressure gradient to the exclusion of larger molecules
active transport carriers move particles against their concentration gradeintrequires energy ATPcarrier must have higher affinity for the substance at side where concentration is lowerundirectional
primary active transport NA+, K+, CA++ pumps
secondary active transport symporters-2 different substances are moved in the same directionantiporters-2 substances are moved in opposite directions
endocytosis incorporation of materials dues to an invagination of the membrane to form a vesicle
phagocystosis large materials such as proteins or bacteria
pinocytosis water and dissolved solutes
exocytosis reverse of endocytosis-fusion of vesicle membrane and release of materials
Created by: nanchie1987