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Civilizations Era2

World History: Agrarian Civilizations and Pastoral Nomads

geographic luck having the right climate and latitude to support large-seeded grasses and the domestication of animals, both of which lead to agrarian civilizations
cultural hearth another name for early river civilizations
Indus River Valley This is the location of one of the 4 earliest river civilizations; it is in present-day India
Yellow River Valley This is the location of one of the 4 earliest river civilizations; it is in present-day China
Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) This is the location of one of the 4 earliest river civilizations; it is in present-day Iran & Iraq
Nile River Valley This is the location of one of the 4 earliest river civilizations; it is in present-day Egypt
delta triangular region at the mouth of a river: it is rich in minerals which help to enrich the soil for farming
Afroeurasia A large interregional area spanning three different continents
the Americas A large interregional area spanning two continents (covering a lot of distance north to south)
Australia/Oceania another interregional area covering many islands in between the Indian and Pacific Oceans
source (of a river) where a river starts; usually water flows downhill from an elevated location
domestication the process of taming plants and/or animals to make them more suitable for human use/consumption
Neolithic Revolution turning point where hunters and gatherers started to settle down in an area to farm
flooding an annual event that improved the success of farms, even in dry places like Egypt
direct democracy when many people participate in the government themselves, not through representatives
Hammurabi's Code a strict set of laws that were followed in Babylon, a kingdom in the area known as Mesopotamia
food surplus having more food than you need to survive
specialization the ability to do different jobs after you have established a food surplus
hieroglyphics writing system that uses symbols or pictures to denote objects, concepts, or sounds originally and especially in the writing system of ancient Egypt
cuneiform characters formed by the arrangement of wedge-shaped elements and used in ancient Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian writing
alphabet a set of letters or symbols in a fixed order, used to represent the basic sounds of a language; in particular, the set of letters from A to Z.
a human eyeball Under Hammurabi's Code, this would be would be removed from the body of someone who injured the eye of another citizen
Jericho a city in Southwest Asia (present-day Jordan) that showed early signs of a civilized community
Catal Hoyuk a city in Southwest Asia (present-day Turkey) that showed early signs of a civilized community
polytheistic worshipping and believing in more than one god
metallurgy the art and science of producing metal goods, all the way from mining and extracting metal from mineral ores to the shaping of metal objects
technology he use and knowledge of tools, crafts, or technical systems to solve problems and/or complete different tasks
textile cloth or fabric that is woven, knitted, or otherwise manufactured
bronze a metal alloy (metal mixture) consisting of mostly copper, but also with tin or lead. It is harder and stronger than plain copper
Bronze Age a period after the Stone Age characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons made by heating and combining copper and tin
cultural diffusion the process of different cultures adopted ideas and technology from other cultures over time
chariot a wheeled carriage powered by horses that was essential for trade and warfare throughout Afroeurasia beginning in about 3000 BC/BCE
plow a farming tool used to prepare the ground for the planting of seeds
pottery a form of technology specializing in the creation of clay containers (useful for farming and other tasks)
irrigation creating a channel to get water from a source directly to the fields
scribe a person who learned to read hieroglyphics and hieratic (a quicker and shorter form of hieroglyphs): this job could be middle or upper class depending on the types of things recorded
social hierarchy the ranking of people into different social classes
elite group of people considered to be the best in a particular society because of their power, talent, wealth, or other characteristic
laborer a person who worked as a farmer, builder, or general worker in Era 2
social institution Organized to meet basic social needs: these last for a long time. Examples include economy, government, family, religion, education, and language
Stone Age The time period when humans used stone tools to improve their chance for survival
Paleolithic Era This was the time of hunters and gatherers LONG before Era 2
Tigris River One of the reasons why the Fertile Crescent earned that name
Euphrates River Paired with the Tigris, this river was important to the development of Mesopotamia
world population growth in Era 2 This was caused by the stable food surplus generated in Era 2 by farmers
nomadic having no fixed home and having to move from place to place in search of food, water, or grazing land
pastoral nomads people who depend on domestic lifestock, migrate in an established territory to find pasture for their animals
tribute a gift or payment to one who has power over another to show respect or obedience
agrarians another word for farmers
Created by: johnbacolor
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