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AP Euro Review

Spain/Portugal 15th Catholic; Exploration; Dias; de Gama; Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas Between Spain and Portugal- divided up New World; Spain got better deal
France 15th 100 years war (won)
England/GB 15th 100 years war (lost), Tutor Family (1485)
Low Countries 15th Northern Renaissance
HRE/Germany 15th Gutenberg; Northern Renaissance
Italy 15th Renaissance (1420-1530); da Vinci; Masaccio (painter)
C/E Europe 15th Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Spain/Portugal 16th Spanish Armada; Exploration; Wars of Religion (tried to make Netherlands Catholic); silver/sugar; Magellan (around the world); Philip II (under him Spain had reached height of influence etc.); Hapsburg; Jesuits
France 16th Wars of Religion; Catherine de Medici; Edict of Nantes; Henry IV; Bourbon Family
Edict of Nantes Ended the Wars of Religion, granted rights to Huguenots (Protestants)
England/GB 16th English Reformation; Henry VIII; Act of Supremacy; Elizabeth I (politique); Mary Queen of Scots
Low Countries 16th William of Orange; Duke of Alba
Act of Supremacy puts Henry VIII as head of the Church of England
HRE/Germany 16th Martin Luther (didn't agree with indulgences, sola scriptura, priesthood of all believers); Reformation; Peace of Augsburg; Diet of Worms
Peace of Augsburg allowed for Lutheranism and Catholicism
Italy 16th Reformation; Counter-reformation; Baroque; Machiavelli; Council of Trent
C/E Europe 16th Calvinism; Zwingli; Habsburg (Austria; Copernicus ; Marburg Colloquy
Spain/Portugal 17th 30 years war; starting to slip
France 17th Cardinal Richelieu (rules until Louis 13 old enough); Louis 13; Louis 14 (Versailles etc);mercantilism; Scientific Revolution; Descartes (graph, method of doubt)
Mercantilism only so much wealth, source of wealth- precious metals, more exports than imports, want to acquire colonies
England/GB 17th Petition of Rights; Civil War; Glorious Revolution; Agricultural Revolution; Stuart Family;Locke/Hobbes
Petition of Right 1628 no taxation without the consent of Parliament, no imprisonment without cause, no quartering of soldiers on subjects, and no martial law in peacetime
Locke/Hobbs Hobbes-country should be ruled by dictator because people are bad Locke- natural rights
Low Countries 17th Peace of Westphalia; Dutch Golden Age; Baroque-Rembrant
Peace of Westphalia extend Peace of Augsburg to include Calvinism
HRE/Germany 17th 30 years war; Peace of Westphalia; Rise of Prussia
Italy 17th Scientific Revolution; Galieo, Bacon etc.; Baroque-Bernini, Caravaggio
C/E Europe 17th Gustavous- Swedish leader in 30 years war
Spain/Portugal 18th War of Spanish Succession; Bourbon Family
France 18th THE French Revolution (1789-1799); lose 7 years war; Enlightenment (Voltaire-free of speech/relgion, Russo-social contract, Montesque-seperation of power); Rise of Napoleon; Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen basic charters of human liberties, inspired French Revolution
England/GB 18th Enlightenment (Smith, Hume); Strengthen Parliament role-PM job; Enclosure Act; 7 years war (win); Late 18th-beginning of IR
Low Countries 18th Power declining; great shipping nations; Spinoza
HRE/Germany 18th War of Austrian Succession; Frederick the Great
Italy 18th Little enlightenment
C/E Europe 18th Pragmatic Sanction- Maria Teresa; Mozart; Poland Partition; Joseph II- religious tolerant
Spain/Portugal 19th lose colonies; Romantic art- Goya; Napoleon invades
France 19th Napoleonic Wars, Paris Commune; lots of revolution; Impressionism/romanticism
England/GB 19th Industrial Revolution; center of culture; socially liberal; Gladstone v Disraeli; Darwin
Low Countries 19th Belgium-independent; Van Gogh
HRE/Germany 19th Bismark (conservative, welfare state); Franco-Prussian War; Germany state- 1871; Romanticism (Beethoven, Brahms, Goethe)
Italy 19th Italian Unification
3 leaders of Italian Unification Garibaldi (sword)- military leader, united people in South Mazzini (Heart)- romantic republican Cavour (head)- PM of Piedmont, similar mindset to Bismark-all about the $
C/E 19th Congress of Vienna; Metternich; Growth of Austria/Hungary
Congress of Vienna reorganized Europe after Napoleonic wars
Berlin Conference Divided up Africa, (HRE/Germany didn't participate because of Bismark)
Spain/Portugal 20th Civil War; Franco-until 1975
France 20th conquered by Germany twice; WWI (allied with Great Britain, France, Russia and Italy); WWII; existentialism; treaty of rome
French Republics (3rd-5th) 3rd- 1870-1940 4th- 1945-1958 5th- 1958-present
England/GB 20th willingly lose empire; welfare state; Churchill; 60s/70s Thatcher- nationalization of industires
Low Countries 20th Taken over in world wars; creators of EU; socially progressive
HRE/Germany 20th blamed for WWI---resentment---WWII; Berlin Wall falls 1989; Best economy in Europe
Treaty of Versailles Germany not allowed to participate in conference, completely blamed for WWI and told to pay for whole war (absurd amount for money)
Italy 20th WWI-free agent; Mussolini;facisim; major political instability;
C/E Europe 20th WWI-destroyed Ottoman Empire; Warsaw Pact (1955); 1956 tried some revolution-squashed by SU; 1968- Prague Spring; 1989 Berlin Wall falls (all peaceful but Romania)
1648 End of 30 years war--Peace of Augsburg, Netherlands independent
1763 End of 7 years war--because of violation of P.Sanction, Prussia now power
1789 Beginning of French Revolution
1815 End of Napoleonic Wars
1914 Beginning of WWI
1918 End of WWI
1945 End of WWII
1989 Berlin Wall falls- end of Cold War
1939 Beginning of WWII
Cold War years 1947-1991
Treaty of Rome Beginning of EU
Maastricht Treaty officially formed EU
1848 Revolutions: GB-none Russia- no (too conservative) France Habsburg- serfs abolished Italy- pope renounced support for unification German
DBQ requirements POV-4-5 Analyze-8+ Use all documents
When were Russian serfs freed? 1861 by Alexander II
Created by: Claire502