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Basic Arrhthmias

QuestionAnswer
the human heart is a muscle intended to pump blood to the entire body
The two distinct components that make up this process are: 1.)the electrical impluse that stumulates the heart to contract(beat) 2.)The mechanical contraction(beating)of the heart in response o the electical stimulation,resulting in the pumping of blood
Cardiovascular means pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
Arteries are vessels that carry oxygenated blood
Oxygen is abbreviated O subscript 2(the 2 is lower and smaller)
Arterioles are small arteries
Veins are vessels that carry deoxygenated blood
Deoxygenated blood contains carbon dioxide which is abbeviated COsubscript 2(the 2 is lower and smaller)
Venules are small veins
Capillaries are microscopic arteries and veins
Vasodilation means increased diameter(lumen)of a blood vessel(s)
Vasoconstriction means decreased diameter(lumen)of a blood vessel(s)
Deoxygenated blood(CO2)is returned to the heart via the venae cavae(superior and inferior)
The superior and inferior venae cavae are the larges veins in the body
The venae cavae deliver the deoxygenated blood(CO2)to the right atrium
The right atrium is the superior(upper)right chamber of the heart
The deoxygenated blood(COsubscript 2)moves through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle
The right ventricle is the inferior(lower)chamber of the heart
The right ventricle pumps the deoxygenated blood(CO2)to the Lungs where respiration takes place
Respiration is the exchange of gases
The gases exchanged are oxygen(Osubscript 2)and carbon dioxide(COsubscript2)
The oxygenated blood (Osubscript2)returns from the lungs to the left atrium
The left atrium is the superior(upper)left chamber of the heart
The oxygenated blood(Osubscript2)then moves through the bicuspid valve(mitral valve)to the left ventricle
The left ventricle is the inferior (lower)left chamber of the heart
The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood(Osubscript2)through he largest artery of the body called the aorta
The aorta branches off in arteries,arterioles,and capillaries that will distribute the oxygen(Osubscript2)to all the cells of the body
Capillaries, venules, and veins will return te deoxygenated blood(CO2)to the venae cavea and cardiovascular circuit is complete
Normal electrical conduction (transmisson) of the heart follows the following pathway: 1a.)Sinoatrial(SA)node 2b.)Internodal pathways 3.)Atrioventricular(AV)junction (node) 4.)Bundle of His 5a.)Left Bundle Branch 5b.)Right Bundle Branch 6.)Purkinje Fibers
The Sinoatrial(SA)node is located in the right atrium
This electical conduction(transmisson)stumulates the cardiac cells to contract
The electrical patterns of the heart can be detected from the surface of the skin by attaching electrodes and connecting them to an electrocardiagraph(machine)
An abnormal cardiac (heart)rhythm is called an arrhythmia or dysrhythmia
Electrocardiography refers to the study of arrhythmias or dysrhythmias
EKG(ECG)refers to an electrocardiograph(machine)or electrocardiogram(record)
The electrocardiograph(machine)will display te elecrical patterns of the heart on a telemetry monitor and/or graph paper
The electrical activity of the heart is displayed best if you can assure good contact betwee the electrodes and the skin
The can be done by: 1.)Abrading the skin slightly with an alcohol pad 2.)Removing any obstacles such as dirt or hair
The study of shapes is called morphology
The writing point on the electrocardiograph(machine)is called stylus
An electrocardiograph(machine)not connected to the patient will produce a straight line called an isoelectric line
An upright wave on an electrocardiogram(EKG)is called positive
A downward wave on the electrocardiogram(EKG)is called negative
Different electrical views of he heart can be seen by: 1.)Rearranging the electrodes 2.)Changing the direction(view)of the cardiac electrical impulses received by the elecrocardiograph(machine)
Each cardiac electrical view is called a lead
The most common lead used for cardiac monitoring is lead 11 ( lead 2)
The vertical lines on the electrocardiogram(EKG)graph paper represent time
The horizontal lines on the electrocardiogram(EKG)graph paper represent voltage AKA amplitude
Each small square on the ellectrocardiogram(EKG)graph paper represents 0.04 seconds
Each darker square on the electrocardiogram(EKG)graph paper represents 0.20 seconds
Every three seconds on the electrocardiogram(EKG)graph paper is represented by a tic mark at the top of the graph paper
A cardiac cycle consists of a PQRST
The first wave usually seen on a cardiac cycle is the P wave
The P wave represents atrial depolarization AKA the atrial discharge state
The second wave usually seen on the cardiac cycle is the QRS complex
The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization AKA the ventricular discharge state
A normal QRS complex is 0.12 seconds or less
The last wave usually seen on the cardiac cycle is the T wave
The T wave represents ventricular repolarization AKA the ventricular recovery state
The PRI(PR interval)begins were the P wave leaves the isoelectric line and ends where the QRS complex begins
A normal PR interval (PRI) is 0.12 to 0.20 seconds
Electrical interference sometimes seen on the electrocardiograph(EKG)monitor is called artifact
Artifact can be caused by: Muscle tremors
60 cycle interference artifact 60 cycle interference can be caused b electrical interference from other electrical machinery such as: cell phones,an electric shaver,a radio,a floor buffer,video games,an i-pod,an i-pad,etc
The regularity of a cardiac rhythm is determined by measuring the distance from one R wave to the next wave with your calipers and walking he calipers from R wave to R wave
If the R to R distance is consistent, the rhythm is regular
If the R to R distance is not consistent, the rhythm is irregular
The Heart Rate(HR)of a regular rhythm is determined by counting the number of small squares between two R waves AND dividing that number into 1500
The Heart Rate(HR)of an irregular rhythm is determined by counting the number of R waves in six seconds and multiplying that number by 10
Sinus rhythms are produced by the Sinoatrial(SA)node
The Sinoatrial(SA)node is AKA as the heart's natural pacemaker
The word sinus means the P waves are: 1.)Upright AKA positive 2.)Uniform which means the P waves have similar morphology(they look alike) 3.)One P wave for every QRS complex
In normal Sinus Rhythm(NSR)the rhythm is: 1.)Regular 2.)The Heart Rate(HR)is 60-100 Beats Per Minute(bpm) 3.)The P waves are upright, uniform, and there is 1 P wave for every QRS complex 4.)The PRI(PR internal)is 0.12-0.20 seconds 5.)The QRS complex is 0.12 seconds or less
In sinus bradycardia(SB) the rhythm is: 1.)Regular 2.)The Heart Rate(HR)is less then 60 Beats Per Minute(bpm) 3.)The P waves are upright,uniform, and there is 1 P wave for every QRS complex 4.)The PRI(PR inerval)is 0.12-0.20 seconds 5.)The QRS complex is 0.12 seconds or less
In sinus tachycardia(ST)the rhythm is: 1.)Regular 2.)The Heart Rate(HR) is between 100-160 Beats per Minute(bpm) 3.)The P waves are upright,uniform, and there is 1 P wave for every QRS complex 4.)The PRI(PR interval)is 0.12-0.20 seconds 5.)The QRS complex is 0.12 seconds or less
In Sinus Arrhythmia(SA)the rhythm is: 1.)Irregular 2.)The Heart Rate(HR) is usually between 60-100 Beats Per Minute(bpm) 3.)The P waves are upright,uniform, and there is 1 P wave for every QRS complex 4.)The PRI(PR interval)is 0.12-0.20 seconds 5.)The QRS complex is 0.12 seconds or les
Created by: BLM1095