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U3: Sickle Cell

sickle cell disease

Anemia A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.
Blood Plasma The pale yellow fluid portion of whole blood that consists of water and its dissolved constituents including, sugars, lipids, metabolic waste products, amino acids, hormones, and vitamins.
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood.
Hematocrit The percent of the volume of whole blood that is composed of red blood cells as determined by separation of red blood cells from the plasma usually by centrifugation.
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin, contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
Sickle Cell Disease Individuals who are homozygous for the gene controlling hemoglobin S. The disease is characterized by the destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium.
Thrombocytes (Platelets) A minute colorless anucleate disklike body of mammalian blood that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium.
Amino Acid An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins.
Anticodon A triplet of nucleotide bases in transfer RNA that identifies the amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon in messenger RNA during protein synthesis at a ribosome.
Codon A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
Hydrophilic Having an affinity for water.
Hydrophobic Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA and attached to ribosomes in the cytoplasm; it specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Mutation A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Nucleotide The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Protein A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
Protein Synthesis The creation of a protein from a DNA template.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Ribosome A cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules and is formed by combining two subunits.
Transcription The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
Translation The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids.
Allele Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus.
Autosome A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome.
Chromosome Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
Dominant trait A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait.
Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information.
Genetic Material Molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms.
Genotype All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
Heredity The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant.
Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order.
Karyotype A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Meiosis The cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell.
Mitosis A process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves a series of steps, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
Mutation A rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Pedigree A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characteristics in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
Phenotype The observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment
Recessive Trait A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
Sex Chromosome One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual.
Punnett Square A simple graphical way of discovering all of the potential combinations of genotypes of an offspring, given the parents’ genotypes.
Created by: andrea2a