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A&P I Chap. 3

Energy: States of Energy

Energy The capacity to do work
Two states of energy Potential and kinetic
Potential energy Stored energy (think of battery)
Kinetic Energy of motion
True or False - Energy can be converted from one state to another True
Potential energy & plasma membrane Concentration gradient, sodium ion concentration is higher outside of cell - potential energy
Electric energy Movement of charged particles. ex: electricity or the movement of ions across the plasma membrane of a neuron.
Mechanical energy Exhibited by objects in motion. ex: muscle contraction for walking
Sound energy Molecule compression caused by a vibrating object. ex: sound waves causing vibration of the eardrum in the ear
Radiant energy Energy of electromagnetic waves. Higher frequency with greater radiant energy. Forms with frequency higher than visible light able to penetrated the body and mutate DNA. Light detected by retinal cells.
Human eye can detect visible light...... within a small range of 400nm to 740nm
Heat energy Kinetic energy of random motion. Usually not available to do work. Measured as the temperature of a substance.
First law of thermodynamics Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only change form
Second law of thermodynamics When energy is transformed, some energy is lost to heat. The amount of usable energy decreases. ex: moving around on a cold day to warm up
Kinetic Energy & plasma membrane Sodium ion exhibit kinetic energy as it moves down the concentration gradient.
Reactant The substances present prior to start of a chemical reaction. Always written on left side of equation.
Product The substances formed by the reactants. Always written on the right side of the equation.
Catabolism Collective term for decomposition reactions
Anabolism Collective term for all synthesis reactions
Metabolism Collective term for all chemical reactions in the body
Synthesis When two or more substances come together to form a new substance.
Decomposition When a substance breaks down into more than one substance.
Exchange When two or more substances swap elements.
Irreversible reaction Net loss of reactants and a net gain in products over time
Reversible reaction No net change in concentration of reactants and products. Reactants become products, products become reactants.
Exergonic Energy is released
Endergonic Energy is required
Enzymes Catalysts that accelerate normal chemical activities. Decrease the activation energy, only facilitate reactions that would already occur, increase the rate of product info.
Chemical reactions Categorized as - uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions
Uncatalyzed No enzyme is present
Catalyzed Enzyme is present
Function of enzyme Exergonic reaction, substrate higher potential energy than total potential energy of products, activation energy required to initiate the reaction, more glucose and fructose formed in a period of time with enzyme
Enzyme's active site Specific in shape, permits only a single substrate to bind, helps catalyze only one specific reaction. Results in an enzyme-substrate complex
Decomposition reaction - lactose digested to glucose and galactose. Step 1 The substrate binds to the enzyme (lactase), forming an enzyme-substrate complex.
Decomposition reaction - Step 2 The enzyme changes shape, resulting in an induced fit between substrate and enzyme.
Decomposition reaction - Step 3 The bond is broken between glucose and galactose.
Decomposition reaction - Step 4 Glucose and galactose are released and the enzyme is free to bind to other substrates.
Synthesis reaction - Glucose into a glycogen molecule Step 1 The glucose substrate binds to the enzyme, forming an enzyme-substrate complex.
Synthesis reaction - Step 2 The enzyme changes shape, resulting in an induced fit between substrate and enzyme.
Synthesis reaction - Step 3 Bonds are broken and a new bond is formed between the new glucose molecule and the growing glycogen molecule.
Synthesis reaction - Step 4 Glycogen is released and the enzyme is free to bind with other substrates.
Enzyme - Cofactors Molecules or ions required for normal enzyme function, associate with a particular enzyme, nonprotein organic or inorganic structure, organic enzyme is called coenzyme ex: vitamins, modified nucleotides, inorganic cofactors attach to enzyme, ex: zinc ion
Enzyme name Usually based on the name of the substrate or product, suffix -ase, ex: pyruvate dehydrogenase--transferring hydrogen from pyruvate, DNA polymerase--helping form DNA, lactase--digesting lactose
Substrate concentration Increasing the concentration of the substrate increases the rate of reaction (up to the point of enzyme saturation)
Temperature effects on substrate 3-D shape of protein is more rigid at cooler temperatures, optimum temperature for maximum protein flexibility of intact human enzyme, enzyme denatures as weak intramolecular interactions are broken at higher temperatures.
pH effects on substrate Acidic - denatures, Basic - denatures, Neutral - remains intact (6-8 pH for human enzymes)
Competitive inhibitors Resembles substrate and can bind in active site of enzyme, compete for occupation of active site, interferes with active site of enzyme so substrate cannot bind.
Noncompetitive inhibitors Do not resemble substrate, bind to a site other than active site (allosteric site), induce conformational change to enzyme and active site, not influenced by concentration of substrate
Metabolic pathway Pathways are regulated by negative feedback by a product.
Multi-enzyme complex (physically linked enzymes) The product of one enzyme becomes the substrate of a different enzyme within the same complex. The products of each enzyme are unlikely to diffuse away to participate in other chemical reactions
Glucose oxidation Step by step breakdown of glucose with energy release, CO2 and H2O are formed.
Glucose Is an energy rich molecule with many C-C, C-H, C-O bonds
Glycolysis Anaerobic process in cytosol, glucose broken down into two pyruvate molecules, net production of 2 ATP and 2 NADH molecules, pathway contains 10 enzymes
Metabolism - Stage 1 Digestion in GI tract lumen to absorbable forms. Transport via blood to tissue cells.
Metabolism - Stage 2 Anabolism and catabolism of nutrients to form intermediates within tissue cells.
Metabolism - Stage 3 Oxidative breakdown of products of stage 2 in mitochondria of tissue cells. CO2 is released and H atoms removed are ultimately delivered to molecular oxygen, forming H2O. Some energy released is used to form ATP.
Cellular respiration - Electron transport system Involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2, energy released used to make ATP. Involves structures located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, electron carriers, H pumps, ATP synthetase enzymes
Oxidative phosphorylation Involves oxygen as final acceptor, ATP formed from phosphorylation, distinguish from substrate-level phosphorylation, forms ATP from energy directly released from a substrate, occurs during glycolysis and citric acid cycle
Electron transport system - Step 1 Electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH2 through a series of electron carriers within the cristae. O2 is the final electron acceptor.
Electron transport system - Step 2 Energy of electrons "falling" is used to move H up its concentration gradient from the matrix to the outer compartment.
Electron transport system - Step 3 ATP synthetase harnesses the kinetic energy of the H "falling" down its concentration gradient to bond ADP and Pi to form ATP.
Regeneration of NAD+ Hydrogen transferred from NADH to pyruvate, pyruvate converted to lactate (lactic acid), Enables glycolysis to continue
Created by: daydreamer67