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A&P I Chap. 2

Matter Solid, liquid or gas
Atom Smallest particle that exhibits the chemical properties of an element
# of neutrons Atomic mass - atomic #
Atomic # Number located on top of the element symbol
Atomic mass Number located below the element symbol
Proton # Also the atomic #
Electron # Equals proton #
Nucleus Made up of protons and neutrons
Orbit (outer shell) Electrons orbit the nucleus
Protons Positively charged
Neutrons Neutral
Electrons Negatively charged
Radioisotopes Are unstable because they contain excess neutrons
Half-life The time for 50% of radioisotopes to become stable
Number of electrons in each orbit 2, 8, 8, 2
Chemical compounds Stable associations between two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio. Classified as ionic or molecular.
Ionic compounds Structures composed of ions held together in a lattice of ionic bonds
Ions Group of atoms with a positive or negative charge. Produced from the loss or gain of an electron. Used in body for significant functions - Na+ for electrical signals, Ca2+ for blood clotting and muscle contraction, Cl in stomach acid
Most common elements in humans (CHON) Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen
Na+ Conducting nerve impulses in neurons and muscles
K+ Conducting nerve impulses (action potential) in neurons and muscles
Ca2+ Hardness of bone and teeth, muscle contraction, exocytosis, blood clotting
Covalent bond Atoms share electrons, can be single, double or triple bond
Carbon chains Straight, branched or circular
Polar bond Bond between two atoms that share electrons UNEQUALLY
Nonpolar Bond between two atoms that share electrons EQUALLY
Intermolecular attraction Weak chemical attractions between molecules. Important in maintaining the shape of complex molecules such as proteins and DNA
Hydrogen bond Example of weak chemical attraction, individually weak, collectively strong, influences how water molecule behaves
Water Composes 2/3 of the human body weight, polar bond, can form up to four hydrogen bonds, universal solvent
Phases of water Gas, liquid, solid
Functions of liquid form of water Transports (substances dissolved in water throughout body), lubricates (decreases friction between body structures), cushions (absorbs sudden force of body movements), excretes wastes (unwanted substances dissolved in water ex: urine)
Hydrophilic Attracted to water, dissolves in water
Hydrophobic Repelled by water, does not dissolve in water
Acid Dissociates in water to produce H+ and an anion, called a proton donor. pH level would be 0-6.6 (HCl, wine, grapefruit, tomato juice
Base Accepts H+ when added to solution, called a proton acceptor. pH level would be 8.0 - 14.0 (sea water, bleach, NaOH)
pH Measurement of whether something is either an acid, base or neutral, scale of 0-14.
Neutral pH Measurement would be 7.0 - 7.4 (blood, pure water)
Neutralization Occurs when an acid or base is returned to a neutral level. Acids are neutralized when a base is added, visa versa
Buffers Help prevent pH changes if excess acid or base is added. (ex: carbonic acid - weak acid and bicarbonate - weak base, buffer blood pH
Water mixtures Formed by combining two or more substances. Substances mixed are not chemically changed, can be separated by physical means
Mixture categories Suspension, colloid, solution
Emulsion A polar substance such as water and a nonpolar substance like oil form an emulsion when agitated. (salad dressing)
Suspension Large solutes or cells that scatter light and settle if mixture is not in motion. (blood)
Colloid Smaller solutes that scatter light but do not settle. (gelatin)
Solution Smallest solutes do not scatter light or settle. (soda)
Organic molecules Molecules that contain hydrocarbons, most are a component of living organisms
Inorganic molecules All other molecules
Four classes of biomolecules Lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins
Dehydration synthesis (condensation) Occurs during synthesis of biomolecules, one subunit loses an H, other subunit loses an OH, new covalent bond formed and water is produced.
Hydrolysis reaction Occurs during the breakdown of biomolecules, an H is added to one subunit, an OH is added to another subunit
Carbohydrates An H and an OH usually attached to every carbon, chemical formula (CH2O)n - n represents the number of carbon atoms.
Monosaccharides Simple monomers
Disaccharides Formed from two monosaccharides
Polysaccharides Formed from many monosaccharides
Nucleotide monomer Three components - sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Nucleotide composed of nitrogenous bases adenine, ribose sugar and three phosphate groups, covalent bond between last two phosphate groups (release energy when broken), central molecule in chemical energy transfer within cells
Catalyst Component that is used to speed up a process without being used up - class of protein (enzyme), ex: hydrolytic enzymes (cleave polysaccharides), DNA polymerase (synthesizes DNA)
Defense Class - immunoglobulins, ex: antibodies "tag" foreign proteins for elimination
Transport Class - circulating transporters, ex: hemoglobin carries O2 and CO2 in blood, ex: sodium-potassium pump - participates in establishing a resting membrane potential
Support Class - supporting proteins, ex: collagen - forms ligaments, tendons ex: keratin - forms hair, nails ex: fibrin - forms blood clots
Movement Class - contractile, ex: Actin - contraction of muscles, ex: myosin - contraction of muscle fibers
Regulation Class - osmotic proteins, ex: albumin - maintains osmotic concentration of blood Class - Hormones, ex: insulin - controls blood glucose levels, ex: ADH - (antidiuretic hormone) increases water retention by kidneys, ex: oxytocin - uterine contractions
General protein structure One of more stands of monomers
Monomers Amino acids
Glycoprotein proteins with carbohydrate attached, ex: glycoproteins on erythrocytes determining ABO blood groups
Lipids Triglycerides are the most common form of lipid in living things. Used for long-term energy storage, structural support, cushioning and insulation of the body.
Carbohydrates Two important examples - glucose (monomer), glycogen (polymer). The liver stores glucose as glycogen and breaks down glycogen to glucose as needed.
Nucleotides Monomers that make up the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA.
DNA Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
RNA Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil
Protein - primary structure Linear sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Protein - secondary structure Alpha helix (spiral coil), beta sheet (planar, pleated) basically forms an H shape
Protein - tertiary structure Three dimensional shape, formed with a multitude of repeating secondary structures. Globular proteins (compacted formation), Fibrous protein (extended linear)
Protein - quaternary structure Present in proteins with two or more polypeptide chains, ex: hemoglobin with its four polypeptide chains
Prosthetic groups Non-protein structures covalently bonded, ex: hemoglobin protein
Denaturation Conformational change to a protein, disturbs protein activity, usually irreversible, can occur during heating
pH Changes Can cause denaturation
Created by: daydreamer67