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Gastrointestinal System - Q – Diagnostic Terms & A – Meaning

ankyloglossia tongue-tie; a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum (ankyl/o = crooked or stiff)
cheilitis inflammation of the lip
esophageal varices swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
esophagitis inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus, often resulting from abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causing burning pain in the esophagus
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
glossitis inflammation of the tongue
parotiditis inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps
peptic ulcer disease (PUD) sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria (pept/o = to digest)
gastric ulcer ulcer located in the stomach
duodenal ulcer ulcer located in the duodenum
pyloric stenosis narrowed condition of the pylorus
sialoadenitis inflammation of a salivary gland
stomatitis inflammation of the mouth
anal fistula an abnormal, tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula = pipe)
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
colitis inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammation of the colon with ulcerations
colorectal polyps benign tissue growths on the mucous membrane lining the large intestine and rectum; adenomatous types are precancerous and likely to develop into malignancy
pediculated polyp projected on a stalk (ped/o = foot)
sessile polyp lying flat on the surface (sessilis = low growing)
diverticulum an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract; usually related to a lack of dietary fiber
diverticulosis (Fig. 12-9; see Fig. 12-15) presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon
diverticulitis inflammation of diverticula
dysentery inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools; most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (e.g., amebic dysentery)
enteritis inflammation of the small intestine
hemorrhoid swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likely to bleed)
hernia protrusion of a part from its normal location
inguinal hernia protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
incarcerated hernia hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction
strangulated hernia hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous
umbilical hernia protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus (navel)
ileitis inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
intussusception (Fig. 12-11) prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part (intus = within; suscipiens = to take up)
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
proctitis inflammation of the rectum and the anus
volvulus twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction (volvo = to roll)
cholangitis inflammation of the bile ducts
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
cholelithiasis presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cirrhosis chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue; most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatitis A inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water
hepatitis B inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
hepatitis C inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted by exposure to infected blood; this strain is rarely contracted sexually
Created by: shachi.pandit



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