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086

Gastrointestinal System -Q – Anatomic Terms & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
oral cavity cavity that receives food for digestion
salivary glands three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva: the parotid, the submandibular (submaxillary), and the sublingual glands
cheeks lateral walls of the mouth
lips fleshy structures surrounding the mouth
palate structure that forms the roof of the mouth; divided into the hard palate and the soft palate
uvula small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
tongue muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and secured by a band-like membrane known as the frenulum
gums tissue covering the processes of the jaws
teeth hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating (chewing) food
pharynx throat; passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and for air traveling to the larynx
esophagus muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach sac-like organ that chemically mixes and prepares food received from the esophagus
cardiac sphincter opening from the esophagus to the stomach (sphincter = band)
pyloric sphincter opening from the stomach into the duodenum
small intestine smaller tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach
duodenum first portion of the small intestine
jejunum second portion of the small intestine
ileum third portion of the small intestine
large intestine larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
cecum first part of the large intestine
vermiform appendix worm-like projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function; may help to resist infection (vermi = worm)
colon portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum; identified by direction or shape
ascending colon portion of the colon that extends upward from the cecum
transverse colon portion of the colon that extends across from the ascending cecum
descending colon portion of the colon that extends downward from the transverse colon
sigmoid colon portion of the colon (resembling an ā€œSā€ in shape) that terminates at the rectum
rectum distal (end) portion of the large intestine
rectal ampulla dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal
anus opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
feces waste formed by the absorption of water in the large intestine; usually solid
defecation evacuation of feces from the rectum
peritoneum membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity and consisting of the parietal layer (lining the abdominal wall) and the visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
peritoneal cavity space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
omentum an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other abdominal organs
liver organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion
gallbladder receptacle that stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver
pancreas gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food
biliary ducts ducts that convey bile; include the hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts
Created by: shachi.pandit