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065

Endocrine System - Q – Anatomic Terms & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
adrenal glands located on the superior surface of each kidney; the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
steroid hormones hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
glucocorticoids regulate carbohydrate metabolism and have antiinflammatory effects; cortisol is the most significant glucocorticoid
mineral corticosteroids maintain salt and water balance
androgens influence development and maintenance of male sex characteristics, for example, facial hair, deep voice
catecholamines hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response
epinephrine secreted in response to fear or physical injury
norepinephrine secreted in response to hypotension and physical stress
ovaries located on both sides of the uterus in the female pelvis; secrete estrogen and progesterone
estrogen responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics
progesterone regulates uterine conditions during pregnancy
islets of Langerhans of the pancreas endocrine tissue within the pancreas (the organ located behind the stomach, in front of the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae); secretes insulin and glucagon
insulin a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that is responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose (insulin = island)
glucagon a hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans that serves to regulate carbohydrate metabolism by raising blood sugar
glū′kă-gon 0
parathyroid glands two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck; secrete parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
pineal gland located in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin and serotonin
melatonin exact function unknown; affects the onset of puberty
serotonin a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
pituitary gland located at the base of the brain; considered the master gland as it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands, such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testicles; the anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormon
anterior pituitary anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) initiates the growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates the secretion of estrogen in females and the production of sperm in males
luteinizing hormone (LH) causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum; causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) affects skin pigmentation
growth hormone (GH) influences growth
prolactin stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy
posterior pituitary posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
oxytocin influences uterine contraction
testes located on both sides within the scrotum in the male; secrete testosterone
testosterone affects masculinization and reproduction
thymus gland located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart; secretes thymosin
thymosin regulates immune response
thyroid gland located in front of the neck; secretes triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
triiodothyronine (T3) known as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism
calcitonin regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
Created by: shachi.pandit