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054

Nervous System & Psychiatry - Q – Anatomic Terms & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord
brain portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
cerebrum largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
frontal lobe anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe portion that lies below the frontal lobe; responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes;
cerebral cortex outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter; responsible for higher mental functions (cortex = bark)
thalamus each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain; responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
gyri convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci shallow grooves that separate gyri
fissures deep grooves in the brain
cerebellum portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum; responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
brainstem region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
ventricles series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
meninges three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
peripheral nervous system (PNS) nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves (ad = toward; ferre = carry)
motor nerves nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves (e = out; ferre = carry)
autonomic nervous system (ANS) nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
hypothalamus control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system division of the autonomic nervous system that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
Created by: shachi.pandit