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A&P Chs. 12 - 16

Nervous System

CNS Central Nervous System - includes the brain and spinal cord
PNS Peripheral Nervous System - includes nerves and ganglia
Sensory Nervous System (SNS) "afferent" nervous system, is responsible for receiving sensory information from receptors that detect stimuli and transmitting this information to the CNS.
Somatic sensory component of SNS, may detect stimuli that we consciously perceive. Receptors include - eyes, nose, tongue, ears, skin and proprioceptors.
Proprioceptors Receptors in joints and muscles that detect body position.
Visceral sensory component of SNS, detect stimuli that we typically do not consciously perceive.
Motor Nervous System "efferent" nervous system, responsible for initiating and transmitting motor output from the CNS to effectors. Controls muscle tissue and glands.
Somatic motor initiates and transmits motor output from the CNS to the voluntary skeletal muscles. ex: use your leg to push the gas pedal.
Autonomic motor (visceral motor) innervates and regulates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands without conscious control
Sympathetic "Fight or Flight", speeds up transmissions
Parasympathetic Slows down transmissions
Grey matter Unmyelinated, found in surface, made up of fatty acids
White matter Myelinated, "major highway" that exchanges impulses to and from the spinal cord.
Afferent Sensory - input
Efferent Motor - output
Axon Impulses are taken away from the cell body
Dendrite Impulses are taken into the cell body
Multi-polar 99% of (human) neurons
Bipolar Found in eyes and ears
Unipolar Found in other sensory areas
Anaxonic No axons
Layers of the nerve Epineurium, Perineurium, Endoneurium
Astrocyte (CNS) Large cell, in contact with neurons and capillaries, most common type of glial cell. Forms BBB, regulates tissue fluid, structural support, replicates to occupy space of dying neurons.
Ependymal cell (CNS) Simple cuboidal or columnar epithelial cell that lines the cavity of the brain and spinal cord. Assists in production and circulation of CSF.
Microglial cell (CNS) Small cell with slender branches from cell body, least common type. Defends against infectious agents and engulfs debris from dead or dying neurons.
Oligodendrocyte (CNS) Rounded, bulbous cell with slender cytoplasmic extensions that wrap around CNS axons. Myelinates and insulates CNS axons. Allows faster action potential conduction along axon in the CNS.
Satellite cell (PNS) Flattened group of cells that cluster around neuronal cell bodies in ganglion. Protects and regulates nutrient and waste exchange for cell bodies in ganglion.
Neurolemmocyte (PNS) Flattened cell wrapped around part of an axon. Myelinates and insulates PNS axons. Allows for faster action potential conduction along an axon in the PNS.
Hippocampus Only part of the brain that remains mitotic. As you learn, it grows.
Decussation Crossing over of tissues, ex: optic chiasm
Frontal lobe Primary motor cortex, pre-motor cortex, frontal eye field, motor speech area (broca area)
Insula Primary gustatory cortex - taste
Temporal lobe Primary auditory cortex, auditory association area, primary olfactory area
Occipital lobe Primary visual cortex, visual association area
Parietal lobe Primary somatosensory cortex, somatosensory association
Spinothalmic tract Sensory relay from the skin to the thalamus (ascending tract)
Wernicke area Spoken, written landguage and math comprehension
Primary motor cortex Controls voluntary skeletal muscle activity
Premotor cortex Plan and coordinate learned, skilled motor activities
Motor speech area Regulate skeletal muscle movements involved with speech
Primary visual cortex Visual association area - process, integrate and store visual information
Primary auditory cortex Auditory association area - process, interpret sounds and store sound memories
Primary gustatory cortex Primary olfactory cortex - process taste information and provide conscious awareness of smells
Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory association area - receive and interpret somatic information from receptors
Gnostic area Integrates all information being processed in adjacent lobes to provide a comprehensive understanding of a current activity.
Corpus callosum Links to the two brain hemispheres together as well as provide a communication pathway between them. **Women have more connections through this, causing a sixth sense or "woman's intuition".
Medulla oblongata This section of the brain helps transfer messages to the spinal cord and the thalamus and controls breathing, heart function, blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing.
Pons It serves as a message relay for various parts of the nervous system, including the cerebellum and cerebrum.
Hypothalamus Responsible for hormone production, governs body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleep, moods, sex drive, and the release of other hormones in the body. This area of the brain controls the pituitary gland and other glands in the body.
Thalamus The main function of the thalamus is to relay motor and sensory signals to the cerebral cortex.
Pineal gland Produces melatonin, which helps maintain circadian rhythm and regulate reproductive hormones.
Cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, resulting in smooth, balanced muscular activity.
Infundibulum Connects the pituitary to the brain and is the passage which pituitary hormones are delivered to the deeper parts of the brain.
Contra coup injury Injury is in opposite location of impact, ex - forehead hits wall, brain hits occipital lobe effecting eye sight.
Concussion Temporary alteration in function, normally a contra coup injury
Contusion A permanent injury
Subddural or subarachnoid hemorrhage a.k.a. - Aneurysm, may force brain stem through the foramen magnum resulting in death
Cerebral edema Swelling of the brain associated with a traumatic head injury, treated with manitol and anti-inflammatory
Cerebrovascular accident a.k.a. CVA or stroke, blood circulation is blocked causing brain tissue to die, leads to hemiplegia
Transient ischemic attacks a.k.a. TIA, temporary episodes of reversible cerebral ischemia, mini-strokes
Tissue plasminogen activator a.k.a. TPA, only approved drug to treat stroke victims by breaking up clots, must be given within a few minutes of first stroke
Alzheimer's Disease Degenerative brain disorder, progressive degeneration of the brain that results in dementia, cell death and ultimately neuron death
Created by: daydreamer67



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