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023

Musculoskeletal system - Q – Anatomic Position & term of reference & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
anatomic or anatomical position a term of reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions: the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing for
body planes (Fig. 4-7) reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
coronal plane vertical division of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
sagittal plane vertical division of the body into right and left portions
transverse plane horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
anterior (A) front of the body
posterior (P) back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP) from front to back, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
posterior-anterior (PA) from back to front, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
superior situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior situated below another structure, away from the head
proximal toward the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the proximal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area closest to where it attaches to the hip
distal away from the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the distal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area at the end of the bone near the knee
medial toward the middle (midline)
axis the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
erect normal standing position
decubitus lying down, especially in a bed; lateral decubitus is lying on the side (decumbo = to lie down)
prone lying face down and flat
recumbent lying down
supine (Fig. 4-8) horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back (“on the spine”)
flexion bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
extension straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction movement away from the body
adduction movement toward the body
rotation circular movement around an axis
eversion turning outward, i.e., of a foot
inversion turning inward, i.e., of a foot
supination turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) upward or forward
pronation turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) downward or backward
dorsiflexion bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion (ROM) total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements (i.e., ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct); measured in degrees
goniometer (Fig. 4-10) instrument used to measure joint angles (gonio = angle)
anatomic or anatomical position a term of reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions: the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing for
body planes (Fig. 4-7) reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
coronal plane vertical division of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
sagittal plane vertical division of the body into right and left portions
transverse plane horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
anterior (A) front of the body
posterior (P) back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP) from front to back, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
posterior-anterior (PA) from back to front, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
superior situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior situated below another structure, away from the head
proximal toward the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the proximal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area closest to where it attaches to the hip
distal away from the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the distal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area at the end of the bone near the knee
medial toward the middle (midline)
axis the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
erect normal standing position
decubitus lying down, especially in a bed; lateral decubitus is lying on the side (decumbo = to lie down)
prone lying face down and flat
recumbent lying down
supine (Fig. 4-8) horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back (“on the spine”)
flexion bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
extension straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction movement away from the body
adduction movement toward the body
rotation circular movement around an axis
eversion turning outward, i.e., of a foot
inversion turning inward, i.e., of a foot
supination turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) upward or forward
pronation turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) downward or backward
dorsiflexion bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion (ROM) total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements (i.e., ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct); measured in degrees
goniometer (Fig. 4-10) instrument used to measure joint angles (gonio = angle)
Created by: shachi.pandit