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Endocrine System

Anatomy, for final lab practical

Glucagon aka Alpha cells, signals liver to break down glycogen and release glucose when levels are low
Insulin aka Beta cells, lowers blood glucose/sugar levels when too high. Signal storage of glucose (as glycogen)in the liver
Diabetes Mellitus lack of insulin (hyposecretion)or insulin resistance that leads to high blood sugar
Master Control Center Hypothalamus
Endocrine Glands secretes aqueous fluid inside extracellular space and blood; ductless; can act at a distance
Hypothalamus and Pituitary form control system and major link between Nervous System (neurons) and Endocrine System (hormones)
3 Types of Stimuli that Hormones are released in response to 1) Humoral 2) Neural 3) Hormonal
Hormonal Stimuli Hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormones
Amino Acid based Hormones EXCEPT for thyroid hormone, all amino acid based hormones are water soluble (cannot enter target cells; act on receptors in plasma membrane and use 2nd messengers)
Steroid based Hormones all steroid based hormones (plus thyroid hormone) are lipid soluble, meaning they can cross the plasma membrane into the cell and activate intracellular receptors
Hypothalamus produces 2 NEUROhormones -oxytocin -antidiuretic (ADH) These hormones are stored and released in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Anterior Pituitary produces 6 hormones 1) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 2) Growth Hormone (GH) 3) Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) 4)Prolactin (PRL) Gonadotrophins 5) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) 6) Luthenizing Hormone (LH)
2 Pituitary Hormones that act on NON ENDOCRINE organs 1) Growth Hormone 2) Prolactin -NON TROPIC
What type are Anterior Pituitary Hormones (4 of the 6) 4 out of 6 are Tropic Hormones= stimulate other endocrine glands to release their hormones
Oxytocin [1/8] **produced in hypothalamus, stored/released by posterior pituitary**. Activates uterine contractions and helps control lactation (both positive feedback)
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) [2/8] **produced in hypothalamus, stored/released by posterior pituitary** major regulator of water balance in body; released when water needs to be stored, meaning less water in urine
Growth Hormone (GH) [3/8] **Produced and released by Anterior Pituitary, regulated by hypothalamus** Acts on non endocrine organs; targets are bone & skeletal muscle; regulated by GHRH/GHIH of hypothalamus Too much=Gigantism or Acromegaly(hands/feet big) Too little=dwarfism
Prolactin (PRL) [4/8] **Produced and released by Anterior Pituitary, regulated by hypothalamus** Acts on non endocrine organs; stimulates lactation; targets mammary gland/breasts
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) [5/8] **Produced and released by Anterior Pituitary, regulated by hypothalamus** development and secretory activity of thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) [6/8] **Produced and released by Anterior Pituitary, regulated by hypothalamus** deals with external and internal factors, i.e fevers and stresses (think, adreno=adrenaline!)
Thyroid Hormones Secreted by Gland [1/2] Thyroid Hormone= directly regulates cellular/body metabolism; tells mitochondria to make energy; increased thyroid hormone release=increased metabolic activity
Thyroid Hormones Secreted by Gland [2/2] Calcitonin= lowers calcium levels in blood; stimulates calcium uptake in blood (stops osteoclasts); antagonist is parathyroid hormone
Hyperthyroidism aka Graves Disease
Hypothyroidism aka Hashimoto's Disease; leads to goiter and cretinism; area becomes swollen and inflamed
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) increases blood concentration of calcium by stimulating osteoclasts which break down bone and release calcium into blood stream. Too much secretion= weak bones. Promotes activation of vitamin D by kidneys. Too much= kidney stones
Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands renal= kidneys, these are found above them. 2 endocrine glands in one 1) Adrenal Cortex (external): glandular, corticosteroids 2) Adrenal medulla (internal): autonomic/sympathetic nervous system
Adrenal Cortex (of adrenal gland) long term stress; 3 layers/hormones
-Mineralcorticoids (of adrenal CORTEX) regulation of mineral salt levels/ balance of extracellular fluid; produces ALDOSTERONE= regulation of salt levels; aldosterone stimulates reabsorbtion of Na+ (salt) and disposes of K+ in urine
-Glucocorticoids (of adrenal CORTEX) keep blood glucose levels constant & maintain blood pressure. Under stress, theres a rise in these & glucose forms from fats/proteins to save glucose for brain. Excessive levels= depress cartilage/bone formation & inflammatory/immune responses(cortisone)
-Gonadocorticoids (of adrenal CORTEX) sex hormones; produces androgen that are converted to testosterone (men) or estrogen (women)
Adrenal Medulla (of adrenal gland) secretes 2 "excitatory" hormones; these are short term stress responses (aka fight or flight)
2 Excitatory Hormones (of adrenal MEDULLA) Epinephrine (aka adrenaline) and Norepinephrine (aka noradrenaline; modified ganglionic sympathetic neurons; these hormones are classified as CATECHOLAMINES
Pineal Gland produces MELATONIN, contraceptions rise/fall in a diurnal (day/night) cycle...peak levels at night. Influenced by intensity of daylight
Gonads primary sex organs; Testes produce testosterone, ovaries produce estrogen and progesterones (female hormones)
Heart Secondary Endocrine Structure/// specialized cardiac muscle cells secrete Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)= increases Na+ in urine= reduces blood volume and pressure
Kidneys Secondary Endocrine Structure/// produce two hormones 1) Erythropietin: signals bone marrow to increase production of red blood cells. 2) Renin: initiates mechanism that leads to release of aldosterone= increase in blood volume/pressure
Thymus Secondary Endocrine Structure/// located in chest; decreases in size throughout adulthood; hormones involved in normal development of T-cells for an immune response
GI Tract Secondary Endocrine Structure/// 1) enteroendocrine cells secrete hormones (i.e in response to food) 2) Gastrin stimulates the release of HcL in stomach
Skin Secondary Endocrine Structure/// cholecalciferol (inactive form of vitamin D) when exposed to UV radiation. Active form is essential for absorption (signals intestine) of calcium
Adipose Tissue Secondary Endocrine Structure/// leptin= tells body how much stored energy (fat) is available. Increased weight= increased leptin in blood and vice versa. Binds to CNS neurons and suppresses appetite (satiety hormone); increases energy expenditure
Skeleton Secondary Endocrine Structure/// osteoblasts secrete osteocalcin which stimulates pancreas beta cells to secrete more insulin. Reduces glucose and body fat
Created by: KAzetapi