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Park I Landmark Laws

AICP: Landmark Laws before 1950

TermDefinition
Ordinance of 1785 Provided for the rectangular survey of land of land for the Old Northwest; Called the most significant planning act in our history by Daniel Elazar
Homestead Act of 1862 Opened up Public Domain lands to settlers as long as they: 1) paid a nominal fee; 2) lived on the land for five years
Morrill Act of 1862 Under the leadership of Congressman Justin Morrill; Congress authorized proceeds from the sale of public domain laws were used to fund colleges offering practical trades (engineering and agriculture); Also related to Economic Development
Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States (1878) Author: John Wesley Powell; Proposed a regional plan to foster: 1) settlement of the arid west; 2) conserve water resources; Also related to: conservation, econ dev, landmark laws, landmark pub
General Land Law Revision Act of 1891 Gave President power to create forest preserves by proclamation. Also related to: conservation
United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Co. (1896) The first significant legal case concerning historic preservation; U.S. Supreme Court rules that Gettysburg served a valid public purpose; Also related to: Conservation
Forest Management Act (1897) Authorized some control by the Secretary of the Interior over the use and occupancy of the forest preserves; Also related to: Conservation
New York State Tenement House Law (1901) Lead reformer = Lawrence Veiller; This law authorized the revision of city code that outlawed tenement housing altogether; Also related to: housing
Public Lands Commission (1903) President Teddy Roosevelt appoints this Commission; Purpose: propose rules for orderly land development and management; Also related to: Conservation
Antiquities Act of 1906 First law to protect and preserve archaeological sites; Federal level; Designed areas of historic, pre-historic, or scientific importance in the Public Domain as National Monuments; Also related to: Conservation
Inland Waterway Commission (1907) President Teddy Roosevelt establishes this commission to manage waterway development this included: Navigation, Power, Irrigation, Flood Control, Water Supply Also related to conservation
Standard State ZONING Enabling Act (1916) NY City Commission passed the first comprehensive zoning resolution in the nation; Lead reformers: McAneny and Bassett; Edward Basset is known as the father of planning; Also related to: Housing
National Park Service Established (1916) Responsible for conserving and preserving resources of special value; Also related to Conservation
U.S. Housing Corporation and Emergency Fleet Corporation established (1918) Influenced later advances in public housing; Operated at major shipping centers to provide housing for WWI workers; Also related to Housing
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act of 1924 U.S. Department of Commerce under Secretary Herbert Hoover established this law; Guidance on legislation and organization of zoning; A legislative body must establish zoning commission; Precedent: Standard State Zoning Enabling Act led by Bassett
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty (1926) Constitutionality of zoning upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court; Case argued by Alfred Bettman
Standard City PLANNING Enabling Act (SCPEA) of 1928 U.S. Department of Commerce under Secretary Hoover; Established: Planning Commission, Master Plans, Approval of all public improvements and control of private subdivisions to Commission, and establishment of regional planning commission + region plan
First instance of rural zoning (1929) Occurred in Wisconsin; Authorized county board to regulate and restrict areas where agro, forestry and recreation may be conducted.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (1933) Set up under Harry Hopkins and Pres FDR; Purpose: alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government using grants
Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) Established to rehabilitate and redevelop the Tennessee Valley; famous river-basin planning site; Lead reformers: Senator Norris and David Lilenthal
National Housing Act (1934) Established Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporationfor ins (FSLIC) for insuring savings deposits and the FHA for insuring individual home mortgages
Taylor Grazing Act (1934) Purpose: regulate the use of the range in the Wests for conservation purposes;
Establishment of the Resettlement Administration (1935) leader: Rexford Tugwell of FDR admin; Purpose: experiment with land use reform and population resettlement; Built Greenbelt towns, forerunners of New Towns; City name tend to have "green" in title
Soil Conservation Act of 1935 Congress approves to help prevent soil erosion on the national level;
The Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act Requires the Secretary of the Interior to manage and restore historic sites; Requires federal agencies to consider preservation needs in their programs and plans; predecessor of the National Historic Preservation Act, passed.
Social Security Act (1935) Act passed to create a safety net for elderly; Francis Perkins, Sec of Labor and first woman cabinet member, was reformer;
U.S. Housing Act (Wagner-Steagall) of 1937 Set the stage for future government aid by appropriating $500 million in loans for low-cost housing; Tied slum clearance to public housing
Farm Security Administration of 1937 established, successor to the Resettlement Administration and administrator of many programs to aid the rural poor
GI Bill or Servicemman's Readjustment Act of 1944 Guaranteed loans for homes to veterans under favorable terms, thereby accelerating the growth of suburbs
Housing and Home Financing Agency 1947 Predecessor of HUD; to coordinate federal government's various housing programs;
Housing Act (Wagner-Ellender-Taft Bill) of 1949 First U.S. comprehensive housing legislation; Aimed to construct about 800,000 units; Established urban redevelopment program.
Created by: lhilde
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