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AP I Exam 4

Chapter 15

QuestionAnswer
How is sensation different from perceptions? ~sensations are both conscious and subconscious detections of the internal body homeostasis and external environment ~ reaches the cerebral cortex and become consciously aware of the stimulus ~ touch, pain, hearing, or taste
How are perceptions different from sensations? ~perception interprets sensations and all conscious awareness ~ never reaches the cerebral cortex to become aware of the stimulus ~ uses other parts of the brain to fix the problem ~ blood pressure
How does general sense differ from special senses? ~refer to both visceral and somatic senses
How does special senses differ from general sense? ~include sensory modalities of smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium
How does somatic senses differ from visceral senses? ~somatic sense are the sense of touch, pressure, vibration, itch, tickle, warm, cold, nonmoving and movement of the limbs ~tactile, thermal, pain, and proprioceptive sensations
How does visceral senses differ from somatic senses? provide info on the conditions within the internal organs
Where are some somatic sensory receptors located? ~ vagina, anus, and mouth ~ muscles, tendons, and joints ~ inner ear *HYPODERMIS OR SKIN*
How are somatic sensory receptors distributed in the body surfaces? ~ distributed unevenly ~ some parts are densely populated with receptors ~ some parts only contain a few receptors
Where are the highest density somatic sensory receptors located? ~ tongue, lips, and fingers
What are the four modalities of somatic sensations? ~ thermal, tactile, pain, and proprioceptive
Somatic sensations that arise from the skin surface are called what? ~cutaneous sensations
Cutaneous Sensations are what? ~Somatic sensations that arise from the skin surface
What are proprioceptors? ~ provide information about body position, muscle length/tension, and the position/movement of joints
Where are proprioceptors located? ~ muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear
Referred pain is different from somatic localization by what? ~ the pain is felt in/just deep to the skin that overlies the stilted organ ~ in a surface area far from the stimulated organ
Somatic localization is caused when? ~ sensation appears to come from a larger area of the skin ~ categorized as "fast pain"
What is categorized as "fast pain"? ~ somatic localization
Referred pain is considered what? ~ visceral pain
What are proprioceptive sensations? ~ knowing where your head or limbs are located ~ what make us able to walk and go about without looking at it
What do Ascending pathways contain? thousands of first-order neurons, second-order neurons, and third-order neurons
1st-order neurons do what in regards to ascending pathway? ~ Go from receptor to spinal cord or brain stem -- cell cody in dorsal/posterior root ganglion
2nd-order neurons do what in regards to ascending pathway? ~ spinal colum/brain stem to thalamus-- cell body in spinal cord/brain stem gray matter *CROSS OVER TO OTHER SIDE*
3rd-order neuron do what in regards to ascending pathway? ~ go from thalamus to appropriate cerebral cortex somatosensory area-- cell body in thalamus (relay station)
The Descending Pathway contains what? upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron
Upper motor neuron does what in regards to the descending pathway? crosses over from cerebral cortex to lower motor neuron -- cell body in cerebral cortex/ brain stem nuclei
Lower motor neuron does what in regards to the descending pathway? brain stem/spinal cord to skeletal muscles through ventral root -- cell body in brain stem nuclei or anterior horn gray matter of spinal cord
What is the function of the olfactory receptors? respond to the chemical stimulation of an odorant molecule by producing a generator potential, initiating the olfactory response
What is the function of the gustatory receptors? chemical sense with distinguishing sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and umami when eating food
What is the structure of the olfactory receptors?
What is the structure of gustatory receptors?
How does taste and smell function together? ~ memory of smell better can help with the identification of objects ~ 75-80% of "taste" is actually smell--- influenced by texture and temperature ~ odor/taste can distinguish if something is disgusting/ negative attribute with it
What is the pathway olfactory receptors take? 1.receptor bipolar neuron 2.olfactory bulb 3.CN I 4.olfactory sensory are of temporal lobe cerebral cortex 5.prefrontal asso. are 6.insula 7.limbic system&hypothalamus 8. 1,000 different kinds of receptors 9. 10,000 different odors
What is the pathway gustatory receptors take? 1. taste bud 2.CN VII, IX, X 3.medulla oblongata 4.thalamus: consious 5.gustaory sensory area of parietal lobe cerebral cortex 6. prefrontal association area-identification 7.insula-taste evaluation 8. limbic system&hypothalamus 9.different taste
What is the structure of the eye?
What is the function of the eye?
What does the fibrous tunic contain? contains cornea and sclera
What does the vascular tunic contain? contains the choroid, ciliary body, iris
Structure of the cavities/chambers?
Function of the cavities/chambers?
What does the nervous tunic contain retina, central fovea & macula lutea, otic disc
Created by: jshockley