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AP I Exam 4

Chapter 13

What are the protective structures for the brain and spinal cord? ~Cranial bones of the skull ~foramen magnum, vertebral foramen, transverse foramen ~meninges
What things are alike in reference to protecting the structures of the brain and spinal cord? ~bones of the skull and bones of the vertebrae ~meninges
What are some differences between the brain and spinal cord in reference to the protective structures?
What is the function of the blood-brain barrier? ~protects the CNS from harmful substances and pathogens by preventing passage of these substances from blood into the interstitial fluid of brain tissue *controls passage of substances from BLOOD into INTERSTITIAL FLUID of neural tissue*
What are the function of astrocytes in the blood-brain barrier? ~chemically control selective permeability into brain interstitial fluid *keep electrolytes in balance*
What are the function of brain-blood capillaries in the blood-brain barrier? ~ tight cell junctions to limit permeability
What cross through active transport through the blood-brain barrier? ~glucose can pass through active transport
What substances pass freely through blood-brain barrier? ~ oxygen, carbon dioxide, alcohol, anesthetics, lipid-souble ions all cross freely through
What substances are impermeable to the blood-brain barrier? ~proteins, toxins, antibiotics, and drugs
What makes up the structure of the blood-brain barrier? ~tight junctions of endothelia cells
What is the function of the CSF-brain barrier? ~permits certain substances to enter the CFS but excludes other, protecting the brain and spinal cord from potentially harmful blood-borne substances *controls passage from substances from BLOOD into CFS*
What is the function of the Cerebrospinal Fluid? ~ mechanical protection--protects agains shock absorb & buoyancy ~ chemical protection-- maintain ion homeostasis ~ circulation/exchange of oxygen and nutrients
What makes up the structure of the CSF-brain barrier? ~ependymal cells
Trace the pathway of CFS from production to reabsorption.
What is the structure of the cerebrum? ~contains an outer cerebra cortex, an internal region of cerebral white matter, and nuclei, functional clusters of neuronal cell bodies deep within the white matter
What is the function of the cerebrum?
What structures are in the cerebrum? ~gyrus, sulcus, fissure, lobes, white matter, gray matter, and limbic system
What structure make up the diencephalon? ~thalamus=conscious thought ~hypothalamus=unconscious thought process- homeostasis ~pineal gland= secretets melatonin hormone ~optic chiasm= ~mammillary body= smell
What is the function of the diencephalon? ~ forms a central core of brain tissue that extends from the brain stem to the cerebrum and surrounds the third ventricle ~involved in a wide variety or sensory and motor processing between higher and lower brain centers
What structures make up the brain stem? ~midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
What is the function of the brain stem?
What is the function of reticular formation ? ~regulates wakefulness and arousal --- works with biological clock ~filters repetiive signals-- same oder strong at 1st then can't smell ~regulate posture & muscle tone
What is the structure of reticular formation? ~netlike region od interspersed gray and white matter ~ extends from the inferior part of the diencephalon, throughout the brain stem, and into the superior pear of the spinal cord
What are the structures that are within the cerebellum? ~cerebellar cortex, arbor vitae, cerebellar nuclei, cerebellar lobes, and cerebellar peduncles
The arbor vitae is what in the cerebellum? ~white matter that are deep in the gray matter tracts
The cerebellar nuclei is what in the cerebellum? ~region of gray matter that give rise to axons carrying impulses fem the cerebellum to other brain centers and to the spinal cord
The cerebellar lobe is what in the cerebellum? ~
The cerebellar peduncles does what for the cerebellum? ~ attach the cerebellum to the brain stem
The cerebellar cortex is what in the cerebellum? ~ superficial layer consisting of gray matter in series of slender parallel folds
what is the function of the cerebellum? ~evaluate how well movements initiated by motor areas in the cerebrum are actually being carried out *POSTURE AND BALANCE
What process happens when the cerebral motor areas are not being carried out properly? ~detects the discrepancies ~sends feedback signals to motor areas of the cerebral cortex via connections to the thalamus ~feedback helps correct the problem, smooth the movements, and coordinate complex sequences of skeletal muscle contractions
What is the function of the spinal cord?
What is the structure made up of in the spinal cord
Cervical Enlargement supplies nerves to and from the upper limbs
Lumbar Nerves provide nerves to and from the lower limbs
What are the pathways of communication between the spinal cord and specific regions of the body? spinal nerves
The anterior fissure helps connect what? connect the white matter of the left and ride sides of the spinal cord
Horns of the spinal cord are made up of what? gray matter on each side that is divided into subdivisions of posterior gray horns, anterior gray horns, and lateral gray horns
Posterior horns contain what? contain interneurons as well as axons of incoming sensory neurons
Anterior horns contain what? contain cell bodies of somatic motor neurons that provide impulses for skeletal muscle contractions
What is between Posterior and Anterior horns Lateral Gray Horns
Lateral Gray Horns contains and does what for the spinal cord? autonomic motor neurons that regulate the activity of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
Created by: jshockley