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Food Final

QuestionAnswer
Microorganisms likely to be involved in food borne illnesses Salmonella, Yersinin enterocotitica, Listeria Monocytogenes.
Foodhandling strategies to prevent foodborne illness Clean, Separate, Chill, Cook
practices of the food-processing industry that prevent foodborne illness pasteurization, sterilization and irradiation
4 points provided by the BAC cartoon and relate Clean- wash hands and surfaces often, Separate- Don’t cross-contaminate, Chill- refrigerate promptly, Cook- cook to proper temperatures.
Differentiate between food infections and food intoxications infections- bacteria, salmonella Intoxications- Staphylococcus aureus, E. Coli
• Relate the danger zone (40°F-140°F) to the importance of food handling, preparation, service and storage. a food exposed to danger zone temperatures for 2 hours or 4 accumulative hours should be discarded.
• Recall the appropriate cooking temperature for leftovers, casseroles, ground turkey and ground chicken (165F) 74C
Relate density to dry and liquid ingredients Density dry ≠ Density liquid
Anatomical structures involved in the perception of flavor Taste+odor+mouthfeel
Relate water activity of a food to how likely it is to perish Growth of mold
Differentiate between the types of carbs Monosaccharides- simplest, number of carbons in the saccharide unit Disaccharides- combining two saccharides Polysaccharides- many monosaccharides together
Three examples of mono- di- and polysaccharides Mono- glucose fructose galactose Di- sucrose lactose maltose Poly- Starch glycogen amylose fiber
Define non-enzymatic (Maillard reaction) browning. The reaction between a sugar and a protein resulting in the formation of brown complexes.
Define the role of antioxidants, sulfhydryl compound (in pineapple juice), and sulfites in the prevention of oxidative browning Antioxdants and sulfer compunds prevent enzymatic browning by using up the available oxygen. Pineapple juice can be added to fruit salad to prevent browning.
Characteristic of high quality fruits and vegetables Clean Smooth and Unbruised
differentiate between mealy and waxy characteristics of a potatoe and predict which should be baked and which should be boiled Russets should be baked and new/red should be boiled
Define a fruit and give examples of simple, aggregate and multiple Fruit- edible part of a plant Simple- developed from one flower, drupespomes and citrus Aggregate- several ovaries one flower, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries Multiple- cluster of several flowers, pineapple, figs
True cereals and psuedo cereals pseudo- high in protein, contain lysine, gluten free
5 basic shapes of pasta Sring- spagetti Ribbon- fettucine Tubes- Penne, elbow macaroni Shapes- shells, rotini Mini pastas- orzo, riso
Composition and structure of a starch molecule Amylose, linear G-chain, amylopectin, branched G-chains, most 75% amylopection 25% Amylose
Identify the effects of liquid, temperature, agitation and time and ph on starch cookery Liquid- Expansion, Temperature- do not dissolve in cold or room temperature thickening happens at high. Agitation- required to ensure uniform consistency. PH- Weaken the ability to thicken.
foundation and functions of a roux Foundation- Flour and fat. Function- thickening. Variations- white, blonde and brown.
Describe the principle and procedures involved in making a white sauce butter and flower are not cooked.
Recall the composition of meat. Water, muscle, connection tissues, adipose (fatty) tissues, and bone.
Use the color of myoglobin to estimate the exposure to oxygen. More myoglobin, more color. Myoglobin carries oxygen
Recall the functions of aging in meat Older they are, more collagen, making it tougher.
Recall factors that affect the tenderness of a cut of meat Age
Label the part of the eggs Yolk, Albumen (egg whites), Shell membranes, air cell, shell
different functions of eggs in the variety of recipes Thicken, color, emulsify, flavor, clarify, bind, foam, leaven, prevent clarification.
composition of egg white, yolk, and shell White- 58% of weight, protein and water. Yolk-30% of weight, nourishes chick, held in the center by chalaze. Shell- 12% of weight, protects the inside contents.
fresh eggs vs older eggs Size of the air cell, thining egg whites, fresh eggs have a more prominent chalazae, migrating yolk,
Differentiate between sizing and grading of eggs. Sizing- Weighed by the dozen. Grading—Haugh Units and appearance. Cradling
Predict the function(s) of the following ingredients in a baked flour mixture: flour, leavening agent, eggs, fat, sugar and liquids Muffins
Compare and contrast baking soda and baking powder. Soda- White chemical leavening powder consisting of sodium bicarbonate. Baking Powder- chemical leavener consisting of a mixture of baking soda, acids, and an inert filler such as cornstarch.
Batters vs Doughs Batter- Flour mixture that contains more water than dough and whose consistency ranges from pourable to sticky. Dough- a flour mixture that is dry enough to be handled and kneaded.
Quick Bread vs Yeast Breads quick bread- bread leavening with air, steam and/or carbon dioxide from baking soda or baking powder Yeast Bread- bread made with yeast which produces carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation, causing the bread to rise.
Predict the quality problems that will occur if a quick bread is over stirred. The cooked product will have deep tunnels
Differentiate between the following types of quick breads: pancakes and waffles, biscuits, cream puffs and éclairs, and muffins Pancakes and waffles- pour batter Waffles have more fat, consistency relates to proportion. Biscuits and scones- biscuts are fatty scones are filled with dried fruits,
Recall the necessary factors for successfully using yeast as a leavening agent Liqued, sugar, proper temperature
predict the role of kneading in the gluten formation in yeast breads Physically handling the dough until it achevies a smooth, soft, non-sticky, surface and springs back when pressed. This tests gluten formation.
Recalls the effects of fermentation that occurs during periods of rising in a yeast bread Dough will double in size and the dough becomes more acidic.
Recall the steps in making a yeast bread Mixing, kneading, proofing, punching, shaping, optional second proofing, pan, decorating, baking.
process of chemical leavening and leavening agents Leavened with gas by baking soda, baking powder, air, and/or steam.
Recall the function of ingredients in cakes (fats, liquids, sugars, eggs) flour- crump structure, starch gelatinizes, proteins form gluten to provide network. Sugar- sweetening, increasing volume, browning, increasing shelf life. Fat- tenderness, volume, moistness and flavor. Milk- hydrates, dissolves, provides steam, allow
Different types of fat used in shortened cakes Butter
Differentiate between types of shortened cakes (pound cake and standard shortened cake). Bundt, butter, carrot cake, cheesecake, ciambollone, coffee, cupcake, devils food cake, fruitcake, german chocolate, ice cream, mooncake, muffin, pound cake, upside down.
Differentiate between shortened, unshortened and chiffon cakes Shortened- a cake made by fat. Unshortened- cake made without added fat. Chiffon- made by combining the characteristics found in both shortened and unshortened cakes.
Recall factors that affect the baking of a cake (temperature, pan, cooling). Mixing, temp, timing
Differentiate between types of unshortened cakes (angel food and sponge Angel Food, Boston Crème pie, dacquoise, genoise, meringue, petit four, roulade, tiramisu.
Created by: 100003397008937