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chapter 18

The Urinary System

urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra.
kidneys located in the upper abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column, behind the peritoneum(retroperitoneal).
renal fascia kidneys are embedded in adipose tissue that acts as a cushion and is in turn covered by a fibrous connective tissue membrane; which helps hold the kidneys in place.
renal cortex outer tissue layer; made of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules. parts of the nephron.
renal medulla inner tissue layer; made of loops of Henle and collecting tubules(also parts of the nephron).
renal pyramids wedge-shaped pieces in the renal medulla.
renal pelvis third area; this is not a layer of tissues, but rather a cavity formed by the expansion of the ureter within the kidney at the hilus.
calyces funnel-shaped extensions of the renal pelvis; enclose the papillae of the renal pyramids.
nephron structural and functional unit of the kidney.
renal corpuscle consists of a glomerulus surrounded by a Bowman's capsule.
glomerulus a capillary network that arises from an afferent arteriole and empties into an efferent arteriole.
Bowman's capsule (or glomerular capsule) the expanded end of a renal tubule; it encloses the glomerulus.
podocytes inner layer of Bowman's capsule; the name means "foot cells," and the "feet" of the podocytes are on the surface of the glomerular capillaries.
renal filtrate the space between the inner and outer layers of Bowman's capsule, the fluid that is formed from the blood in the glomerulus and will eventually become urine.
renal tubule continues from Bowman's capsule and consists of the following parts: proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule.
proximal convoluted tubule in the renal cortex; part of the renal tubule.
loop of Henle (or loop of the nephron), in the renal medulla; part of the renal tubule.
distal convoluted tubule in the renal cortex; part of the renal tubule.
peritubular capillaries all parts of the renal tubule are surrounded by this; which arise from the efferent arteriole.
renal artery blood from the abdominal aorta enters; which branches within the kidney into several interlobar arteries (between the renal pyramids).
renal vein the interlobar veins all unite at the hilus to form this; which empties blood into the inferior vena cava.
glomerular filtration blood pressure forces plasma, dissolved substances, and small proteins out of the glomeruli and into Bowman's capsules.
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) the amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidneys in 1 minute, and averages 100 to 125 mL per minute.
Created by: cramacher