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Last AnatomyLab Quiz


The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of all structures ____ the central nervous system, such as ____ receptors, ____ endings, and the _____ and associated _____ outside, sensory, motor, nerves, ganglia
____ are cord-like bundles of ____ and ____ axons enclosed in __ connective tissue sheaths nerves, myelinated, unmyelinated, 3
_____: The outermost tough fibrous sheath// _____: A coarse sheath that bundles ____ into ____ // _____: The loose connective tissue sheath that encloses single ____ epineurium, perineurium, fibers (axons), fasicles, endoneurium, axon
Based on where they leave the CNS, peripheral nerve fibers are subdivided into ____ and ___ nerves cranial, spinal
Depending on the fibers they are made of, they can be subdivided into ____ or ____ nerves that carry signals from the periphery to the CNS and ____ or ____ nerves that relay signals from the CNS to the effector afferent, sensory, efferent, motor
However, most nerves are ____ nerves, i.e they contain ___ as well as ___ fiber. mixed, sensory, motor
____ are collections of neuron cell ____ outside the ___. There are 2 types of ganglia in the PNS: _____ ganglia that contain the bodies of ___ neurons and ____ ganglia with ______ neurons that send axons to ____ organs. Ganglia, bodies, CNS, dorsal root, sensory, autonomic, visceral motor, effector
There are ___ pairs of cranial nerves. Two pairs of nerves, the ____ and ____ arise from the _____, whereas the other ___ pairs arise from the ______ 12, olfactory, optic, diencephalon, 10, brainstem
Olfactory Nerve (CN I) Passes through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone; arises from the olfcatory receptor cells of the nasal cavity
Optic Nerve (CN II) Purely sensory (visual) function; arises from the retinas; leaves skull through optic foramen/ canal
Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) Fibers extend from the ventral midbrain through the superior orbital fissures to four extrinsic eye muscles; functions in raising the eyelid and directing the eyeball; constricts the iris and controls lens shape
Trochlear Nerve (CN IV) Innervates the superior oblique muscle;
Trigeminal Nerve (CN V) LARGEST cranial nerve; has 3 divisions; the mandibular nerve is one of its divisions; supplies motor fibers for mastication; conveys sensory impulses from various areas of face
Abducens Nerve (CN VI) Innervates the lateral rectus muscle
Facial Nerve (CN VII) chief motor nerves of the face with 5 major branches; carries taste fibers from the anterior 2/3s of the tongue; motor functions include facial expression; relays parasympathetic impulses to lacrimal and salivary glands
Vestibular Nerve (CN VIII) carries afferent fibers from the hearing and equilibrium receptors
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX) innervates part of tongue & pharynx for swallowing & provides parasympathetic fibers to the partoid salivary glands; fibers conduct taste & general sensory impulses from pharynx & post. tongue; carries impulses from carotid chemoreceptors & baroreceptors
Vagus Nerve (CN X) Most motor fibers are parasympathetic & help regulate activities of the heart, lungs, & abdominal viscera; sensory fibers carry impulses from thoracic/abdominal viscera; sensory fibers carry impulses from tastebuds of posterior tongue & pharnyx
Accessory Nerve (CN XI) formed from ventral rootlets from the C1-C5 region of spinal cord; innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles; rootlets pass into cranium via each foramen magnum
Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII) innervates extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue that contribute to swallowing and speech; exits the skull via the hypoglossal canal;
3 Cranial Nerves that supply the extrinsic eye muscles 1) Oculomotor 2) Trochlear 3) Abducens
3 Cranial Nerves that can carry taste signals 1) Facial 2) Glossopharyngeal 3) Vagus
Cranial Nerves purely for sensory function 1) Olfactory 2) Optic 3) Vestibulocochlear
Cranial nerves that leave cranial cavity through jugular foramen 1) Glossopharyngeal 2) Vagus 3) Accessory
Which cranial nerves leave cranial cavity through superior orbital fissure? 1)Oculomotor 2) Trochlear 3) Trigeminal 4)Abducens
3 BRANCHES of Trigeminal Nerve 1) Opthalmic 2) Maxillary 3) Mandibular
There are ___ pairs of spinal nerves; __ cervical, __ thoracic, __ lumbar, 5 ___ and __ coccygeal 31, 8, 12, 5, sacral, 1
Each spinal nerves connects to the _____ via two roots: spinal cord
A) The ____ root contains ______ fibers from the _____ neurons that innervate ____ muscles ventral, motor/efferent, ventral horn, skeletal
B) The ____ root contains ______ fibers from the ____ neurons in the ______ ganglion dorsal, sensory/afferent, sensory, dorsal root
The two roots unite to form the spinal nerve, which emerges through the ______ foramen. Immediately after the foramen the nerve splits into mixed rami: intervertebral
A) _____ ramus for the muscles and skin of the posterior part of the body dorsal
B) ______ ramus to the muscles and skin of the frontal part of the body ventral
C) ______ ramus to the membranes protecting the spinal cord meningeal
D) rami ______ to and from the autonomic ganglia communicantes
The _____ rami of the segments from T2-T12 form ____ nerves that supply the muscles of the ____, _____ thorax, and _____ wall. All other ventral rami form networks called _____. ventral, intercostal, ribs, anterolateral, abdominal, plexuses
The _____ plexus is the uppermost plexus. It is formed by ventral rami of __-__. It innervates the skin and some muslces of ____, ___, back of ____, and _____. The most important nerve is the ____ nerve; it consists of fibers from ___ - ____ cervical, C1, C4, neck, ear, head, shoulder, phrenic, C3, C5
The _____ plexus is the most complex of the plexuses. It is formed by ventral rami from ___-____ and gives rise to nerves that innervate the skin and muscles of the ____ limb. Its major nerves are: ______, _____, ____, ____, and ____ nerve brachial, C5, T1, upper, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, axillary
The superior of the two lower plexuses is called ____ plexus. It arises from ___-___ and supplies skin and muscles of the ___ and ____ wall. Its two major branches are the _____ and ____ nerves lumbar, L1, L4, thigh, abdominal, femoral, obturator
Lowest plexus is called ____ plexus & it serves _____, ____, ____ structures & ____. Its fibers come from roots of ___-___. The 2 major branches are ____ & ______ nerves. They join to form the ____ nerve, which is the longest/thickest nerve of the body sacral, buttocks, lower limbs, pelvic, perineum, L4, S4, tibial, common fibular, sciatic
A _____ is the area of the skin innervated by the _____ branches of a single spinal nerve dermatome, cutaneous
_____ law states that any nerve serving a ____ that produces movement at a ____ also innervates the ___ and the ____ over the joint Hilton's. muscle, joint, joint, skin
Name the 3 levels of motor control 1) segmented 2) projection 3) precommand
There are two basic types of reflexes: 1)) _____ or ____ reflexes that are ____ motor responses to a stimulus. 2) _____ or _____ reflexes that result from practice or repetition inborn, intrinsic, involuntary, stimulus, learned, acquired
Name the 5 components of a reflex arc 1) receptor 2) sensory neuron 3) integration center 4) motor neuron 5) effector
In spinal somatic reflexes the integration center is in the _____ and the effectors are ________. The two major receptors in these reflexes are the _____ spindles and the ______ organs. spinal cord, skeletal muscles, muscles, golgi tendon
Muscle spindles inform the CNS of the ____ of a specific muscle. If the muscle gets stretched the muscle spindle is ____, which leads to muscle _____. This reflex is called ___ reflex. This reflex is mainly used to maintain muscle ___ in large ___ muscles length, activated, contraction, stretch, tone, postural
All stretch reflexes are _____ (i.e involve one synapse only) and _____ (i.e sensor and effector are on the same side of the body). monosynaptic, ipsilateral
In order to protect muscles that are antagonistic to the effector they need to be inhibited from contracting by ____ inhibition. For example, in the ____ reflex the quadriceps as the stretched muscle will ____, while its antagonist (the ____) has to ____ reciprocal, patellar, contract, hamstrings, relax
Golgi tendon reflexes are _____, i.e they involve more than one synapse. They help to prevent damage due to _____ stretch by producing muscle ______ in response to ____. polysynaptic, excessive,relaxation/lengthening, tension
activated, passive, relaxation, contraction, activation
An important reflex that helps us escape danger is the ____ or ____ reflex. It causes automatic ____ of a threatened body part if theres a ___ stimulus. If we touch a hot plate ____ of the major flexors on the forearm (____, _____) will move our hand away flexor, withdrawal, withdrawal, painful, contraction, brachialis, biceps brachi
The stability of our position is thus maintained by the so called _____ reflex. It consists of a ____ reflex on the stimulated side and an ____ reflex on the _____ side. crossed extensor, flexor, extensor, contralateral
If, for example, you are about to step on a nail with your right foot the ____ reflex will contract the ____ in your ___ leg to bend your knee and get your foot away from the nail. flexor, hamstrings, right
At the same time the ____ reflex will cause a contraction of the ____ of your ____ leg to make sure you can stand safely on one leg extensor, quadriceps, left
Superficial reflexes are elicited by gentle ____ stimulation. Common superficial reflex is the ___ reflex, tests correct function of the ____ tracts. Stimulus is a gentle ____ of lateral aspect of the sole of the foot. This leads to dwnward flexion of __ cutaneous, plantar, corticospinal, stroking, toes
In infants and patients with corticospinal or motor cortex damage the stimulus leads to _____ of hallux and ____ of toes. This reaction is called ____ sign or reflex dorsiflexion, fanning, Babinski
The ANS has __ divisions. The _____ division/system promotes maintenance activities and conserves body energy. Its also called the _________ division. 2, parasympathetic, rest & digest
The ____ division/system mobilizes the body during work, exercise, or stress. Therefore, it is also called the ________ division sympathetic, fight or flight
Reflexes of the ANS are called ____ reflexes visceral
ANS fibers that release ACh are called _____ fibers, whereas fibers that release NE are called _____ fibers. choleneragic, adrenergic
All _____ axons and all parasympathetic postganglionic axons are _____ fibers pre ganglionic, cholinergic
Created by: KAzetapi



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