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Ch 28

Pregnancy and Human Development

Fertilization normally occurs within which structure uterine tube
This is a series of functional changes that sperm go through when they are in the female reproductive tract capacitation
The fusion of the secondary oocyte and the sperm results in which developmental stage zygote
This will become the primary structure for exchange of material between the mother and the fetus chorionic villi of the placenta
This is the connection between the placenta and the embryo umbilical cord
The normal gestation period for humans is 40 weeks
This is any agent or influence that causes developmental defects in an embryo none of the preceding
This exam is performed between 14-16 weeks gestation and is used to detect genetic abnormalities amniocentesis
During pregnancy stroke volume can increase by 30%
Labor cannot take place until all of this hormone's effects are diminished progesterone
This is the time from the onset of labor to the complete dilation of the cervix state of dilation
Involution is when the uterus decreases in size
This is a principle hormone that releases milk into the mammary ducts oxytocin
This hormone is secreted by non-pregnant women from secretory cells in the hypothalamus GnRH
Amniocentesis can produce results that indicate the presence of certain genetic disorders such as Down syndrome
In the process of lactation the uterine smooth muscle returns to its normal size more rapidly in nursing than non-nursing mothers
Fertilization in a laboratory dish and transfer of the developing embryo into the uterus is called in vitro fertilization
Implantation is the process where the blastocyst attaches to and enters the endometrium
Implantation occurs____after fertilization about 6 days
The placental stage of labor ends with expelling of the afterbirth
The developing embryo is surrounded by and bathed in amniotic fluid
The testes have descended into the scrotal sac of a male fetus that is full-term
Early pregnancy tests depend on the detection of ___ in the urine human chorionic gonadotropin
At the end of a full-term pregnancy, the top of the uterus reaches nearly to the xiphoid process of the sternum
Chorionic villi sampling, although riskier, has an advantage over amniocentesis because CVS yields test results in a few days
A hormone called___ released from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the production of milk by the mammary glands prolactin
In human development, we call the developing human an "embryo" during the first and second trimesters False
Individuals with two X chromosomes XX are female True
The "bag of waters" represents the fluid from the chorionic sac False
Implantation occurs about 7-8 days after fertilization or about day 21-22 of the uterine cycle True
The 'decidua' is the same layer of the pregnant uterus as the 'endometrium' of the non-pregnant uterus True
Early home pregnancy tests detect the presence if hCG, which is found in the urine only when successful implantation has occurred True
In the hyperplasia of the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy, only muscle cell size increase, not cell number False
An abnormal sudden hypertension with large amounts of protein in urine and edna that can occur during pregnancy Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia associated with convulsions and coma Eclampsia
Prenatal test for chromosomal and biochemical abnormalities that can be done at 8-10 weeks of pregnancy Chorionic villi sampling
Prenatal test for chromosomal and biochemical abnormalities that can be done at 14-16 weeks of pregnancy Amniocentesis
A non-invasive test that can detect neural tube defects, such as spina bifida or anencephaly Maternal alpha fetoprotein test
A newer AFP test that also probes for Down's syndrome and trisomy 18 that results in fetal death in utero or during the first year of life Quad AFP Plus test
The six weeks following parturition that a woman's reproductive organs and physiology return to their pre-pregnancy state Puerperium
The penetration of only one sperm into a secondary oocyte Syngamy
The penetration of several sperm into a secondary oocyte Polyspermy
The process of giving birth Parturition
The attachment of a blastocyst to the wall of the uterus Implantation
Functional changes in the sperm within the female reproductive system that allow sperm to fertilize a secondary oocyte Capacitation
Promotes milk production and secretion, but is action is inhibited during pregnancy Prolactin
Stimulates the corpus luteum to continue production of progesterone and estrogens Human chorionic gonadotropin
Increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis and helps dilate the cervix during labor Relaxin
Helps prepare mammary glands for lactation; regulates certain aspects of maternal and fetal metabolism Human chorionic somatomammotropin
Stimulates uterine contractions and responsible for the milk ejection reflex Oxytocin
Secreted by the placenta; helps establish the timing of birth and increase the secretion of cortisol for fetal lung maturation Corticotropin releasing hormone
Created by: lawalk



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